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Central Asia and the Dravidian connection----Revealed.

Based on the etymology of the names of the places and pesons.




In this article I will try to establish the etymological association of names and places of Central Asia with Dravidian language Tamil with the use of the magical letters, Aa[ the primordial], ba[ earth or water] , ka [ sky or heat] , Ra [sun], sa [ red sun or the moon ] ankh[ body] , thee[ fire], la[ light or moon], vaa[ the sky], an [ andam- the universe], Maa [ big or great ], Orai-- Aa+Ra[ the sun] etc.


According to Musaeu‘s exposition, Turkic - Dravidian contacts belong to the parental language phenomena, i.e. contacts between one and another took place in Proto -Turkic and Proto Dravidian times.


…… A hypothesis can put forward that the Dravidian languages, still preserved as linguistic enclaves in Afganistan and the Turkic languages and their ancestors had direct contacts and possibly a common base, not less than 4000 years ago, i. e, not later than the 2 nd millennium B.C.This means that before the Indo - Iranian coquest 3500 years ago, the Turks and the Dravidians werr direct neighbours and that it was only the Indo - Aryan wave that severed their relations. Their contact could possibly have taken place in the Territories of Middle Asia, of the Ural - Volga region, and of the Caucasus.[some thoughts on Dravidian -Turkic-Sanskrit Lexical comparisons by Andres Alonso de la ].



The theory that the Dravidian languages display similarities with the Uralic [ hungariyan, Finnish] and Altaic [ Turkic, Mongol] language groups suggesting a prolonged period of contact in the past , is popular amongst Dravidian linguists and has been supported by a number of scholars including ERobert Caldwell , Thomas Burrow , Kamil Avelebil and Mikhail Andronou. This theory has been however rejected by some specialists in Uralic languages and in recent times has been criticized by other Dravidian linguists like Bhadriraju Krishna murthi. Rasmus k. Rask considered Dravidian as belonging to the Scythian labnguages referring to Scythians as non Semitic and non Indo Europian peoples and languages of esastern Europe and Western asia sometimes also termed as ‘Hyper borean' .www. reference .com/ brouse/Dravidian+languages


The epicenter for the Dravidian dispersals in Asia was Iran. YThe motivation behind Dravidian dispersals was agro - pastoralism in the region and the search for the new sources of metals for trade with Mesopotomia. the Indus Valley and beyond [ Winters 1985a, 1985b]. This would explain the close relationship between Dravuidfianand Elamite [McAlpin 1970, 1981] on the one hand and Dravidian, Mandling and Elamite on the other.


The Dravidians settled in Iran between 3000-2800B.C.[Winters 1985], From here the Dracvidians spread into Central Asia,China , South and Southwest Asia. It was probably from Iran thatBronze working radiated into Centraland Southwest Asia [winter 1985].



Muenges [1966] using linguistic data
assumed an earlier habitat of the Dravidians far to the northwest on the plateaue of Iran ……. An area extending still a little more to the north into what has become Turksistan”. This view is now confirmed by archaeological evidence of an Indus culture in Central Asia. [ /theDravidian-Harappan -Colonization of Central Asia by Clyde winter].


Now we will find out the Dravidian - Central Asia connection through the etymological analysis of the names of the places of Central Asia.




Turkmenistan is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Thee Ra Ka Mani Thanam .Thee is the Fire; Ra is the sun ; Ka is the sky; Mani is the star; Thanam means the ‘place' in Tamil and it is a original Tamil word which was taken up by the Sanskrit layer as ‘stan' .



Kyrgyzstan is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Karaka [s[ thanam [ ka ra ka thanam ] Karakam in Tamil means the planet.




Kazakastan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name kasa Kasa thanam. Kasa kasa in Tamil means poppy . Hence ‘Kasa kasa sthan' mreans the land where poppy was cultivated.



Uzbekistan is the corrupted form of the Tamil word vasa pakkam. Va +sa in Tamil means the ‘moon [usha] ‘or back yard [vaasal]. Vasam [acquired - vasa paduthu, kai vasam] and Vaasam [smell, to live] , are related words. Hence' Vasal pa'akam ‘ or Usha paakam [ usha- early morning time , when the moon about to diaappear and the sun about to raise ] is the correct meaning of the name Uzbekistan . ‘Paakam' in Tamil means the near by place and ‘pakkam' means near by . Tamil Paakam and Sanskrit ‘stanam ‘ has similar meaning. The Sanskrit word ‘Stan' was added later , to the ancient Tamil name ‘ Usha pakkam ‘ without understanding the exact meaning of the Tamil word ‘Paakkam.'




Tejikistan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Thee saei ko thaanam. The name is the combination of Thee+sa+ka+thaanam .Ko thanam means ‘ the grazing land for the the cattle'. You Saeyon is the red sun. From the word Thee saei, the Tamil word for direction, ‘thisai' came into vogue. The name Ko thanam, cattle donation, came fron the word Kothanam, the place for the cattle. Ko thai [Poonkothai --ba+ ko +thee] , Kothami or Gowthami and Gowthaman are related proper names . Thee saei Ko thanam also means ‘the land of thee Saeyan, red sun'.




Afaganistan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Aa+ba+ka+an+ am +thaanam. Aa is the sky or the sun at a distance and ‘ba ‘is the earth or the water. ‘Appu ‘ [ aa+ba] in Tamil means water. Abayam, Abayakon are the related words. Kanam in Tamil means ‘a dwelling place or village' as in the names ‘ Arakonam'[ aran +kanam , Marakanam[ Ma +Orai +kanam] , Makanam [ ma+kanam] and sengunam[ senkanam]. ‘Kaanakam' in Tamil means the' forest'. ‘Konam' in Tamil means the ‘angle'. Kanam in Tamil also means ‘song.' Ganam, Gunam and Kanakam are related words and names. The original Tamil name ‘Abakanam' or ‘Abikanam' is corrupted to become ‘Abakonam +thanam' and finally ‘Afganistan'. Abinanthanm [ greetings for or from the sky and the earth] , Abi Naya[ beautiful , like the sky and the earth] Abi saekam [ Abi +sai +ka+om , like in poo sai -- thee [poo] sai ] and Abi Seik are related words and names.




Turkstan is the corrupted form of the Tamil word ‘Thee Ra Ka thaanam'. Thee Ra kon means the sun god lord Siva. ‘Thiru ‘of the Dravidian people originated form the word Thee Ra Kan. Thiru KO could have been corrupted to become Turk.


Balochistan, Pakistan and Baluchestan province, Iran;


Baluchistan is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Ba la ka thaanam, the land of Ba la kan , lord Murugan . The name Murugan is the composition of Ma +Orai +ka+an which means He is the only Ma oraoi of the Ko andam . Since He is the avathar[ Aa +va Thee +Ra , Avai tharan ] of lord Siva , the name Murugan [Marutham land- ko maran ] earlier known by various names like velan [ kurunchi land] , kadamba [ Ko thee ‘ambu' n [ kurunchi land] , Kandan [ Mullai land] , Subramaniyan [ sa+Ba+ra , sabari- sapparam-- Neithal land ] Mani kandan[ palai land ], would have come into vogue only after the vedic Brahamins started projecting ‘Visnu' as the universal sun god among the Dravidian people. The time period for the name Ma - orai Ka anda to get corrupted to become the name Murugan could be a reasonably lengthy one . Murugan is the Murai kon or Murai Ma Amman[ maman] of the bride, moon goddesas ‘Velli ‘ Nila alias ‘valli thee - yoni [ Deiva yani alias valli Deivanai ]. Yoni is the opposite of ‘Aani ‘[aan means the man].


Rajastan, India;


Rajastan is the Tamil Rasan thaanam. Ra + sa means the sun and the moon and it denotes the god- king who is the representative of the Ra and sa in the earth.

Sub national units.;


Bashkortostan, Russia.


Bashkortostan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name , Ba sa kar - Baskar thee thaanam, ‘ Baskar an ‘ means the sun , Lord Murugan [ Ba +sa+ karan ].


Dagestan, Russia;


Dagestan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Thee Ko thaanam.


Kurdistan, Iraq.


Kurdistan is the corrupted form of the Tamil Name ko Orai thee thaanam. Karu , Karai , kari , Kurai , koorai , Kurathee , Kora thee are related Tamil words .


Tatarstan, Russia.


Tatarstan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name ‘Thee Tharan thaanam'.



Balistan, Pakistan.


Balaistan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Bala thaanam. Kalan is the sun and Balan is his son. Palam means the fruit.


Gobustan, Azerbaijan.


Gobustan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ko ba thanam. Kabarstan is the related word.


Golestan province, Iran.


Golestan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name KO la thaanam.


Khuzestan, Iran.


Khuzestan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ka va sa [ ko vaasa] thaanam .


Lorestan, Iran.


Lorestan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name La+orai +thee +an +am. La+Orai mean the glistening white star and Lorestan means ‘the land of the sun'.


Nurestan, Afghanistan.


Nauristan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Na+orai +thee+an+am. Na Orai --Naakku orai means the fire flames of the sun [ Naakku - tounge-- fire flames of the orai ] , Narai , [white hair] , Naarai [ white crane] and Nari , the fox [ Naakku , the tounge protruding as in a dog ] are related words.


Sistan Iran.

Sistan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name, Sisu thanam. Sistan is the combination of sae+sa +thee+ an +om. ‘Sae' is the ‘red sun' and ‘sa' is the ‘moon'.' Sisu' in Tamil means new born baby and ‘sisu' is a pure Tamil word. ‘Sisu' means ‘the child born as the replica of the sun and moon' or it means that ‘the child born by the union of the sun and the moon'.


Cities and countries.


Ardestan, Iran.


Ardestan is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Orai thee Thaanam. Oruthee , uruthee , Aruthee , Karuthee are related Tamil words of Orai thee .


Maharestan, Iran.


Maharestan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ma ka Ra sa thaanam. If there is no ‘Maka' it will be as simply Ras[j]asthan. Maka Ra sa thee ram is the original Tamil name of the India state Makarastira. ‘Theeram means the place near by the ocean or river.


Chamestan, Iran.

Chamstan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ka ma thaanam or Ko Maithanam , the land for the cattle or the great, blue sky .



Sharestan, Iran.


Sharestan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Sa Orai [Ra] thaanam. Sara, Saarai, Sarai, ‘sari sari' are related Tamil words. Sharestan means the land of the red sun.


Takestan, Iran.


Takwestan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Thee ka vaa thaanam. Kovai is name of the Pazham, fruit. Ka[a] +vu in Tamil means ‘to sacrifice'. ‘Kavvu ‘in Tamil means ‘to hold with one's mouth'. Koo -vu means ‘to make noise like that of the cockoo bird'.


Tangestan, Iran.


Tangatan is the pure Tamil word Thanga [Thee +ankh+ ka] thaanam, the golden land. The colour of the' thee ‘or the' fire' flame is golden in color. Thangu, Thaangu, thongu, theengu and Thoongu are realted words with different meaning but then with the same basic composition of letters Thee + ankh +ka.







Arabistan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Aa Ra ba thaanam. Arabia, Rabba ni are related words. Saudi Arabia is the combination of Sa+ Vaa + thee Aa +Ra +ba.




Asorestan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name, Aa +sa +Ra thaanam, Asura thaanam, the land of the Ashuran .


Cholistan desert, in Pakistan.


Choluistan is the combination of Ka + la thaanam .




Dashtestan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Desathee thaanam[ Thee + sa + athi + thaanam . Thee +sa = thaesam or daesam. Para thaasam is pure Tamil word which got corrupted to become Pradesh in Sanskrit as in Mathiya Pradesh and Uthira Pradesh. or pradesh Sa +an + Aa + thee = Sannathee[ the sacred place before the lord in the temple. ; sa+an +tha +thee= santhathee, the genations .




Hazarastan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ko sara [Ka +sa+ Ra ] thaanam. ‘Kosuru' is a related Tamil word.





Saraikistan is the corrupted form of ther Tamil name Sa Ra ka thaanam. ‘Sarika' is a related proper name. ‘Sarakam ‘in Tamil means a ‘division' that takes care of a particular land area.




Tocharistan is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Thee ka Orai or Thee kari thaanam.



Etymology of the word Thaanam;



Thaanam is the combination of Thee + Aa + an +om like in Ma ka nam [ district] and Ma ya nam [ grave yard ] . Ma means big or great in Tamil. An is the andam or the unverse. ‘Om' or ‘Am' is the the primordial sound. Aam [ok], Aamam [yes] are the commest words used by Tamils. In fact the words ‘Ma ka nam' and ‘Ma yanam' denote the sky only. After death the person's soul had to travel from the earth to the Ma ya nam, the sky. Ma ka ya nam, a Buddhist sect's name is a pure Tamil word. He na ya nam is the Tamil Ko na ya nam .


Ma ka nam means the big or wide space, the blue sky. Ma ka is the root for the English word “Mega' Ma +ya are the combination of Ma + Aa. ‘Mayan' people should be original Dravidian. ‘Ma yam' , ‘Maiyam' [ center] , ‘Maekam' [ clouds] Ma kan [ son], Ma kan [ big eye] , the sun are related words. Aa means the Athee or Aathi [primordial].


Well! The word “Thaanam” [Thee +Aa + an +om] is a pure Tamil word. ‘Thee' is the ‘fire' [hot] and ‘tha' is the opposite of the fire, the ‘water' [cool]. The word ‘Theenam' means actually the hot place, sky or the sun, theenan or Dhenan. The word' Thanam ‘is the cool place, moon or water or milk or the earth.


The word ‘Thanam' has also different meanings apart from the cool place, the moon. Mulai thanam [ Mulaithu valarum thanam] is the breast ; Mula thanam in Tamil means the capital amount [ initial property] ; Hence Thanam means also has the meaning ‘ property' . Moola Thaanam is the ‘ root place ' or ‘original place' or the ‘ sacred place' [ the uterus] from which one came from. Thaanam in Tamil also has the meaning ‘gift' or ‘donation' . ‘Multan' of Pakistan is the corrupted form of the Tamil word ‘Moola thaanam'. The name Pakistan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name ‘Paaka' thanam'. The word ‘Paakam' in Tamil means the place near by a hill or sea or simply a village. Hence the original , ancient , Tamil name , simple‘ Paakam' would have been wrongly renamed later, as ‘Paaka thaanam' in Sanskrit. Pakkam in Tamil means ‘near by' and paakam means the near by place. Alternatively If we write Pakistan in reverse order as Thana + pakiyam , it will be read as Thana pakiyam which means' gifted place' or ‘blessed land'. Pakiya m in Tamil means ‘blessed' . ‘Thana pakiya m' is the commonest proper name for women in rural Tamil Nadu. In the pre historic era [ kurunchi era] the commonest donation was the Mulai thaanam [ Moolasthanam]-- donation of breast milk , like the blood donation of our period. ‘ Ko thaanam ‘ was the commonest donation during the Mullai period or the Shepherd life of ancient people. ‘Deva Thaanam' was prevalent during Marutham [agricultural] period. Thaniyam [ Dhanya -- grains ], Theeni [ hot and spicy snacks] , Thoni [ the parisal ] , Thanmai [cool] , Thanneer [ Thana +neer , water] ,Thani , Thanimai [ isolated] , thaenu or thaen[ honey] , thaeni [ bee], than , thaan [self , ‘ Naan than' -- myself] , Thaa[ give] , Thandu, Thana vaan, Thana balan , Thana sakaran , Thana Rasan , Thana vel, Thoon [pillar], Uthara vithanam -- the diaphragm , Thinam[ day , daily] , thinnam[sure] , are related Tamil words to the word ‘Thaanam . Maithanam, the big ground, is a pure Tamil word and it is the combination of Ma+ Aa+ thee+ an+Om. Mathiyanam -- afternoon is a pure Tamil word.


Nithanam , Seethanam [ marriage gift] , sathanam [ object,things, moon] , Santhanam [ sandal wood] , methanam [ slow or unconcerned ] , Vathanam [ lips] , Vanthanam[ greeting], noothanam [ novelty] , sanni thanam [ sacred sanctoriam [ sunni thanam -- the adult penis in Tamil , sana thanam [ darmam], anna thaanam [ gift of food] , Veera thanam[ Brave nature ] , soora thanam[ havind the nature of the sooran , the sun] , Kolai thanam[ coward nature ] , Kurumbu thanam [ naughty nature or character ] prathanam [main] , purathanam[ ancient or prehistoric] are related words to the word' Thanam.' Thiyanam [meditatation or prayer ] is a pure amilword.


Sama [s]thaanam [ sa+ma +sa +thaanam] means the kingdom . For example--Pudukkottai Samasthaanam and Thiruvangore Samasthaanam. Sa ma thaanam in Tamil means peace. The word samasthaanam would have originated from the word sa ma thaanam.


Madakathanam is the name of the place near Thodupuzha, Idukki district, Kerala state of south India. Maka thaana puram is a place near Trichiraappali, Tamil Nadu.


Tashkent [] was settled by ancient peoples as an  oasis  on the  Chirchik River, near the foothills of the West  Tian Shan Mountains.


In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, the town and the province were known as  Chach . The  Shahnameh  of Ferdowsi also refers to the city as Chach. Later the town came to be known as Chachkand/Chash kand, meaning "Chach City"


The principality of  Chach  had a  square  citadel built here around the 5th to 3rd centuries BC, some 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of the  Syr Darya  River. By the 7th century AD, Chach had more than 30 towns and a network of over 50 canals, forming a trade center between the  Sogdians  and  Turkic  nomads. The  Buddhist  monk   Xuánzàng  (602/603? – 664 AD), who travelled from China to India through Central Asia, mentioned the name of the city as Zheshí. In the early 8th century, the region was influenced by Islamic immigrants.


In the mid-seventh century, the Sassanian Persian Empire fell to an Arab-lead Islamic conquest. Under the   Samanid   dynasty   (819–999), whose founder   Saman Khuda   of an   Zoroastrian   Sassanian Persian   had converted to Islam, the city came to be known as   Binkath . However, the Arabs retained the old name of   Chach   for the surrounding region, pronouncing it   al-Shash   instead.


The modern Turkic name of   Tashkent   (City of Stone) comes from   Kara-Khanid   rule in the 10th century. (Tash in Turkic languages means stone. Kand, qand, kent, kad, kath, kud—all meaning a city—are derived from the   Persian / Sogdian   kanda, meaning a town or a city. They are found in city names such as   Samarkand ,   Yarkand ,   Penjikent ,   Khujand   etc.). After the 16th century, the name evolved from Chachkand/Chashkand to Tashkand. The modern spelling of "Tashkent" reflects   Russian   orthography and 20th-century Soviet influence.

Kanthar Sashti Kavasam is a famous Tamil hymn in Praise of Lord Murugan. It is composed by Sri Devaraya

Swamigal and helps one to obtain the grace of the Lord.

It is sung particularly on festive occasions, such as during

Kanthar Sashti in October-November.


Kanda Purana; Soorapathman was killed by Lord Murugan on the Sashti Day i.e. the Sixth day after the new moon in the month of Ipasi (October—November). That is the day on which He bestowed boon on all His devotees. All the six days including the Sashti day are regarded as auspicious days for worship and all those who fast and pray to Lord Murugan receive special boons from Him


The name Tashkent is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Kanda Sasthi which means the Star [Sasthee] of the Ko Andam, the universe. Sasthi had corrupted to become ‘Tchach ‘ and later as ‘Tash'. If we write the name T chach kand in reverse order it will be read as Kanda sasthi, lord Murugan. Sastha means lord in Tamil and Kanda is kanthan Murugan, the Dravidian god, the avatar of lord Siva to destroy the Aryan sun god Soorapadman, Visnu.

Tian shan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Theeyan Saeyon, the sun god, lord Siva.


The   Syr Darya, Uzbek:   Sirdaryo ), also transliterated   Syrdarya   or   Sirdaryo , is a   river   in   Central Asia , sometimes known as the   Jaxartes   or   Yaxartes. . The Greek name is derived from   Old Persian , Yakhsha Arta ("Great Pearly"), a reference to the color of the river's water. In medieval Arabic writings, the river is uniformly known as Sayhoun and is considered one of the four rivers whose common source lies in Paradise (the other three being   Amu Darya / Jayhoun , the   Nile , and the   Euphrates ).


Syr Darya is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Siru Thirai which means small river when compared to the Amu darya or Ammam [ Peru - big - Am + ma] darya which is big or great river.The old Persian name Yaksha Arta is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Aa+ ka+ sa Orai thee . Aa ka sa orai thee means ‘like the star or the pearl of the sky'.

The river rises in two headstreams in the   Tian Shan Mountains   in  Kyrgyzstan  and eastern   Uzbekistan —the   Naryn River   and the   Kara Darya —and flows for some 2,212 kilometres west and north-west Uzbekistan and southern   Kazakhstan to the remains of the   Aral Sea . The Syr Darya drains an area of over 800,000 square kilometres but no more than 200,000 square kilometres actually contribute significant flow to the river.


The Tian Shan Mountain is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Theeyan Seyon. Seyon is the Zeus of Greek and lord Siva of Dravidian. Both Zeus and Seyon were mountain dwellers.



The   Kara Darya   (Black River) or   Qaradaryo is a tributary of the   Syr Darya   in   Kyrgyzstan   and eastern Uzbekistan . The river is formed by the confluence of   Kara-Kulja River   and   Tar River . There are more than 200 known tributaries of Kara Darya; the largest are Jazy River ,   Kara Unkur River ,   Kegart River ,   Kurshab River ,   Abshir Sai River , and   Aravan Sai River . Its length is 177 kilometres and watershed area 30,100 square kilometers. The upper Kara Darya flows northwest across eastern   Osh Province   southwest of and parallel to the   Fergana Range . It enters the   Ferghana Valley   and Uzbek territory a few miles west of   Uzgen . The lower course is through the   Fergana Valley , where it is used for   irrigation . In the Fergana Valley its   confluence   with the   Naryn River   forms the   Syr Darya , the second largest river of   Central Asia .


Kara Darya is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Karu Thirai [Ko Orai ] , where Karu means Black and Thirai means river in Tamil. The Persian word Darya for river is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Thirai. The word Karu in Tamil which means dark or or blue or black. Karu thirai mean the dark blue sky above and the river or water below in the earth. The Dravidian word karu [dark or black] occurs repeatedly in Turkic language to denote many places. Examples; Kara kum desert[ black sand] and Kara Kum canal, Kara Koram [ black quarter] mountains , Karu Thalassa [ black sea], Kara mania or Cara Mania[ related words Kara mani kadalai, karu mani ] ,[ Asia Minor- Antalya] Kara Khoto [ black city ] and Khara Khorin rock [ Karu Ko Oraiyan rock-- the phallus of lord Siva]. Karai in Tamil means white lime andKarai also means the river bank. Karai also means the stain. Karu means the' essence' or the embryo.


The   Amu Darya   also called   Amu River   is a major river in   Central Asia . It is formed by the junction of the   Vakhsh   and   Panj rivers. In ancient times, the river was regarded as the boundary between   Ariana  and Turan . In antiquity, the river was known by the   Sanskrit   name   Vaksu , which now survives in   Vakhsh , a tributary of the river.


In ancient Afghanistan, the river was also called   Gozan , descriptions of which can be found in the book "The Kingdom of Afghanistan: a historical sketch By George Passman Tate" . In   classical antiquity , the river was known as the   Oxus   in   Latin   and  Oxos  in   Greek   — a clear derivative of   Vakhsh   — the name of the largest tributary of the river. In   Middle Persian   sources of the   Sassanid period   the river is known as Wehrod   (lit. "Good River"). The name   Amu   is said to have come from the medieval city of   Amul , (later, Chahar Joy/Charjunow, and now known as Türkmenabat ), in modern   Turkmenistan , with   Darya   being the Persian word for "river". Medieval   Arabic   and   Muslim   sources call the river   Jayhoun   which is derived from   Gihon , the biblical name.



Amu Darya is a river almost in reverse, for long reputed to be sourced by a powerful glacier-fed stream high in the Pamir Knot at the eastern end of   Afghanistan 's Wakhan Corridor , and ending not at the sea but spreading out into the sands of Turkmenistan's   Kyzyl Kum   desert, well short of its historic terminus of the inland   Aral Sea .


Amu darya is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ammu thirai where ‘Ammu ‘is the ‘moon' or the ‘milk ‘[ Amuthum]. Thirai is the ‘water' or ‘flood' or' river'. The Persian word for River Darya, is the corrupted form of the Tamil word ‘Thirai'. Literally Amu Darya means ‘river of milk ‘of the earth corresponding to the milky way of the sky. Hence it was called as ‘good river' [wehrod] during the period of Sasaanid. The name Vakhsh is the combination of Vai + ka+sa where ‘vai ‘means the ‘earth' and ‘Ka' means the ‘sky' [ here it is the the sun ] and ‘ sa ‘is the ‘moon'. Hence the name Vakhsh means the Kasa in the earth. The opposite of Vaikasi in Tamil is the word Aakasa or Aakayam, the sky. When there is union of ka +sa there will be production of water. There is month in Tamil calendar called Vaikasi [ Vai + kasi]. Hence the name vakhsh is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Vaikasi. If we write the word Vaikasi or Vahash without the letters vai or va it will be read as Kasa , the name of the river in Afghanistan, kosan or Gosan or Gozan. If we write the Dravidian magical letters Ka+sa in reverse order it will be read as Sa+ka which gets corrupted to become the Arabic name saykone or Jaykon or Jayhoun and the Bibilical Gihon.The same name ‘Gozon' had corrupted to become [Aasan in Tamil ] ‘Ozan'. The Dravidian suffix ‘an' had been replaced by the Latin ‘os' and the' Greek us' and the name ‘Ozan' had become ‘Oxus' in Latin and' Oxos ‘in Greek. Remember for all these names of different languages, the base is the Dravidian magical letters va + ka + sa .


Amoudara of Crete.


Amoudara with its 5 km long sandy beach is one of the most popular resorts near Heraklion city of Crete.The holiday center of Amoudara bustles with life during summertime as hundreds of tourists choose to spend their vacation in that area of Heraklion. Its long sandy beach is ideal not only for sunbathing and swimming, but also for all kinds of water sports.


The Creten Ammou Dara is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ammu Thurai. Thurai means the pier or the shipdeck. It also means the ‘star' of the milky sky as in the proper name ‘Anna Durai'. Probably the pier would have had good drinking water in the surrounding lands -- Amutham or the name Ammou Dara could mean the pier of the moon goddess. Since Ammu Dara is a sandy beach, people of ancient times would have had their dinner [amutham] in the night times of full moon. It could also mean ‘Ammam peru thurai ‘-- a big pier.

The names of Cretan Ammou Dara and the Central Asia River Amu Darya are definitely have Dravidian language, Tamil roots.


Ariana , [ the   Latinized   form of the   Ancient Greek Ariane ,  Ariani was a general geographical   term used by some   Greek   and   Roman   authors of the   ancient period   for a district of wide extent between   Central Asia   and the Indus River ,   comprehending the eastern provinces of the   Achaemenid Empire   that covered entire modern-day   Afghanistan , east and southeast of   Iran ,   Tajikistan , and   Turkmenistan .


The Greek term   Ariane   (Latin:   Ariana ) is based upon   Old Iranian   Aryana ( Avestan :   Airiiana- , esp. in   Airiian?m vaejo , the name of the   Iranian peoples ' mother country, whose localization is disputed).   The modern name   Iran   represents the ancient name   Ariana , - a word itself of   Avestan   origin.   a view which is borne out by the traditions of the country preserved in the Muslim writers of the ninth and tenth centuries. The names   Ariana   and   Aria , and many other ancient titles of which   Aria   is a component element, are connected with the   Sanskrit   term   Arya- , the   Avestan   term   Airya- , and the   Old Persian   term   Ariya-   , a self designation of the peoples of   Ancient India   and   Ancient Iran , meaning "noble", "excellent" and "honourable".

Ariana is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Orai yan na[m] . Oriyan is the sun and ‘nam' means the place around the Oraiyan or the people who worship the sun . The names of places similar to Ariyanam in Tamil Nadu are Marakanam , Ara konam , Sengonam , Thiru ko karnam , Manganam , Veeranam etc. Related words are Vaaranam, Thoranam, Karanam, saranam, maranam etc. The Tamil word Ma kanam means the big [ma ka ] ‘district [nam] ‘. The word Mu konam in Tamil means the' triangle'. The name of the state Hariyana is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Orai yanam [Oraiyan+ nam]. The Deccan plateau is called in Tamil as Thekkanam [Therkku + nam] . Therkku means the south. Thiru vonam is the place of Thiru Aathirai star. Vaanam [Vaa + nam] in Tamil means the sky. Vanam in Tamil means the dark blue forests. Hence the name Ariyana is a pure Tamil word which got assimilated in to the Avestan language. The Dravidian suffix ‘nam' [na+o[a]m] had become ‘na ‘ in Avestan language. The name Airya [Avestan or Arya [Sanskrit] has originated from the Dravidian Tamil word Orai which means the sun or the star. Hence the word Aryan gets the meaning noble or honorable. Hence the name Aryan is purely a original Tamil word . The name would have been coined by the black Dravidian settlers of central Asia to denote the newly invading nomadic white [sunny] skinned people. Ariyanai in Tamil means the' throne'. Ari ma in Tamil is the lion. Orai is corrupted to become ‘Ari' and Aravu [snake].


Turan [en]   is the   Persian   name for a region around   Central Asia , literally meaning "the land of the   Tur ". As described below, the original Turanians are an   Iranian tribe of the   Avestan   age. As a people the "Turanian" are one of the two Iranian peoples both descending from the Persian   Fereydun   but with different domains and often at war with each other.   In fact according to the   Shahnameh 's   account, at least 1,500 years later after the   Avesta , the nomadic tribes who inhabited these lands were ruled by   Tur , who was the emperor   Fereydun 's elder son. The association with Turks is also primarily based on the Shahnameh 's   geographical account where Turkification of Central Asia was partially completed during that time.


The Turan is the corrupted name of the Dravidian Tamil name Thiraiyan, the settled, civilized, agricultural people of the thirai, Amu Dara. To name them as nomads is wrong. On the other hand the sun worshippers of Zorestrianism were the nomads since they worshipped one god and not many pagan gods as that of any agricultural society.Persian Fereydun is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Peru[ Orai ]Theeyon.In fact the name Persia itself is the corrupted form of the Tamil word ‘Peru Seyon', lord Siva , the sun god.The Mediterranean sea is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Mathiya Thirai [ Kadal]. These Turans or the Thiriyans named the Cretan beach as Ammou dara. The city Tyre of Lebanon was the land of these Thiriyan or Turan people. The land of Turan people in southern India is the Thirai vidam or the Dravidam. Turana were also called as Theeran or Theenan or Tharan.


Tur/Turaj (Tuzh in   Middle Persian )   is the son of emperor   Fereydun   in ancient Iranian mythology. In the   Shahnameh , he is identified with the Turks   although culturally, there is no relationship between Turanians of the   Shahnameh   and the culture of ancient Turks.   In 19th century and early 20th century discourse, now obsolete, Turan was primarily an ideological term designating Altaic   and   Uralic languages .


Turaj is the corrupted form of the Tamil proper name Durai Raj [Thurai Rasan] or Thirai Raj[ Thirai Rasan]. The word Tur is the present day ‘Thiru' used by the Dravidian people. The Dravidian people of Tamil Nadu used to add the word ‘Thiru' [equivalent to Mr] before their names.



The oldest existing mention of Turanian is in the Farvardin Yashts of the young   Avesta , which is dated by linguists to have been composed approximately 2500 years ago.   The Avesta   contains the names of various tribal groups who lived in proximity to each other. According to Prof. Gherardo Gnoli:''Iranian tribes that also keep on recurring in the Yasht, Airyas, Tuiryas, Sairimas, Sainus and Dahis''.   In the hymns of the   Avesta , the adjective   Turya   is attached to various enemies of   Zoroastrism   like Fra?rasyan (Shahnameh: Afrasiab ). The word occurs only once in the   Gathas , but 20 times in the later parts of the   Avesta .


Airya is the corrupted form of the Tamil name oraiya[n]. Tuiras are the Tiraiya[n]. Yasht is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Asthi [ashes]. Sainus is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Saenun [ sun ].Sairimas is the corrupted name of the Tamil name Sei+ Raman [ Bala Raman ].Dahis is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Thee kan[ fire flames].



The name Zoroaster , itself is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Suraender or Suraendiran. The name Zoroaster is the combination of Sa+ra+an+thee+ra+an or sa+ ra+ Indiran. Indiran is the combination of an+ Thee + Ra +an or Enthiran. Dravidian ‘an' had become ‘as ‘in the middle part of the name Zoro as ter. Franrsayan is the absolute Tamil name Para Rasaian, the ruler of the sky. Para means the sky and rsayan means the king. Franrsayan is the combination of Ba+ Ra+ Ra+sa+an. The word Gatha is the absolute Tamil word Kathai. Kathai in Tamil means' to tell' or ‘to recite'. It also means the ‘story'. The word ‘Kathai ‘indicates that the stories were heard from the ancestors through the ears, kathu came carried in the kaathu, the air in Tamil. Shahnameh is the combination of sa+ ka+ na+ ma.if we write in different way , as Ma+ ka+ sa+ na , it will be read as Maka sanam which means' Great people'.


The Turanians or Tuiryas as they were called in Avesta play a more important role in the   Avesta   than the Sairimas, Sainus and Dahis. Zoroaster himself hailed from the Airya people but he also preached his message to other neighboring tribes.


Since Zoroaster hailed form Airya tribe it is clear that he belonged to one of the, Tuiryan or Dravidian clans. The short form of Turan is Durai or Thurai.


According   Mary Boyce , in the Farvardin Yasht, "In it (verses 143-144) are praised the fravashis of righteous men and women not only among the Aryas (as the "Avestan" people called themselves), but also among the Turiyas, Sairimas, Sainus and Dahis; and the personal names, like those of the people, all seem Iranian character".   Hostility between Tuirya and Airya is indicated also in the Farvardtn Yast (vv. 37-8), where the Fravashis of the Just are said to have provided support in battle against the Danus, who appear to be a clan of the Tura people.   Thus in the   Avesta , some of the Tuiryas believed in the message of Zoroaster while others rejected the religion.


Farvardin Yasht is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Peru orai theeyon Asthi. Danus is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Dheenan or Theenan, The fire worshipping people. The name Avesta is the combination of Dravidian magical letters Aa + Va+ sa + thee , Aa[ great] va[ vaan- sky] Asthi or Asthee, the sun . The Tamil word ‘avesthai' means suffering or feeling hot[ because of the sun --Aa] or struggle. Aasthee or Asthi means the' ashes'. Svastham means ‘feeling good' or feeling cool [because of the sa- the moon]. The term Swasthika is a pure Dravidian word and it is the combination of Sa+Vaa+sa+thee+ka.



Similar to the ancient homeland of Zoroaster, the precise geography and location of Turan is unknown.   In post-Avestan traditions they were thought to inhabit the region north of the   Oxus , the river separating them from the Iranians. Their presence accompanied by incessant wars with the Iranians, helped to define the latter as a distinct nation, proud of their land and ready to spill their blood in its defense.   The common names of Turanians in Avesta and  Shahnameh  include Frarasyan,   Aghraethra,   Biderafsh,   and Arjaspa Namkhwast.  



Aghraethra is the combination of Aa+Ka+Ra+Thee+Ra which means ‘Akkarai theeran' or' Akkarai Thriyan', the people at the other end of the river Amu Darya . Biderafsh is the combination of Ba+Thee+ra+ba+sa,which is nothing but ‘ Butharan Basu' . Namkhwast is the combination of Na+Ma=Ka+Va+ sa +thee Which means good and great Asthee of the sky, the sun. Arjaspa is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Orai Anbu or Orai Anban, the friend of sun god.

According to C.E. Boseworth:


In early Islamic times Persians tended to identify all the lands to the northeast of Khorasan and lying beyond the Oxus with the region of Turan, which in the Shahnama   of Ferdowsi is regarded as the land allotted to Fereydun's son Tur. The denizens of Turan were held to include the Turks, in the first four centuries of Islam essentially those nomadizing beyond the Jaxartes and behind them the Chinese. Turan thus became both an ethnic and a geographical term, but always containing ambiguities and contradictions, arising from the fact that all through Islamic times the lands immediately beyond the Oxus and along its lower reaches were the homes not of Turks but of Iranian peoples, such as the Sogdians and Khwarezmians.


Khorasan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ko Rasan or Ko Rasayam. Rajiyam is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Rasayam. Sogdian is the corrupted form of the Tamil Sa+ ka+ thee+ an, Sokkan theeyon, lord Siva, the sun god. The name Khwarezmi is the combination of Ka+va+Ra+sa+Ma+, Kavery Sami. Kavery is the name of a river in Tamil Nadu.


The terms "Turk" and "Turanian" became used interchangeably during the Islamic era.   The   Shahnameh , or the Book of Kings, the compilation of Iranian mythical heritage, uses the two terms equivalently. Other authors, including Tabari, Hakim Iranshah and man other texts follow like. A notable exception is the Abl-Hasan Ali ibn Masudi, an Arab historian who writes: "The birth of Afrasiyab was in the land of Turks and the error that historians and non-historians have made about him being a Turk is due to this reason".   By 10th century, the myth of Afrasiyab was adopted by the Qarakhanid dynasty. During the   Safavid   era, following the common geographical convention of the   Shahnameh , the term Turan was used to refer to the domain of the Uzbek Empire in conflict with the Safavids.



Afrasiab;]   ( Persian : ?   afrasiyab ;   Turkish :   Alper Tunga ;   Avestan :   Fra?rasyan ;   Pahlavi :   Frasiyav, Frasiyak,   and   Freangrasyak ) is the name of the mythical king and hero of Turan .


According to the   Shahnameh   ( Book of Kings ), by the Persian epic poet   Ferdowsi , Afrasiab was the king and hero of Turan and an archenemy of Iran. In Iranian mythology, Afrasiab is considered by far the most prominent of all   Turanian   kings; he is a formidable warrior, a skilful general, and an agent of   Ahriman , who is endowed with magical powers of deception to destroy Iranian civilization.


Afrasiyab is the corrupted form of the Tamil name A Para Seyon [Sun] and so he must be the agent of Orai Maan [Maa orai-- the sun]. Appuram in Tamil means the other side [other side of the river or sky or later].


According to   Middle Persian   and Islamic sources, Afrasiab was a descendant of   Tur   (Avestan:   Turiya- ), one of the three sons of the Iranian mythical King   Fereydun   (the other two sons being   Salm   and   Iraj ). In   Bundahishn   he is named as the seventh grandson of Tur. In   Avestan traditions , his common epithet   mairya-   (deceitful, villainous ) can be interpreted as meaning 'an   evil   man'. He lived in a subterranean fortress made of metal, called Hanakana.


Salm is the corrupted form of the Tamil name, Salaman, Sa+la+ma[n], where sa is the moon and la is the light and maa is the big. Iraj is the pure Tamil name E-Rasu, from which the name of the Greek god Eros came in to vogue. Mairya is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Ma oraiya[n]. Maiyr in Tamil means the dark hair.


According to Avestan sources, Afrasiab was killed by   Haoma   near the   Cichast   (possibly either referring to   Lake Hamun   in   Sistan   or some unknown lake in today's Central Asia), and according to Shahnameh he met his death in a cave known as the Hang-e Afrasiab, or the dying place of Afrasiab, on a mountaintop in   Azerbaijan . The fugitive Afrasiab, having been repeatedly defeated by the armies of his adversary, the mythical King of Iran   Kay Khosrow   (who happened to be his own grandson, through his daughter   Farangis ), wandered wretchedly and fearfully around, and eventually took refuge in this cave and died.


Lake Amun is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Amman from which the name of the Egyptian goddess Amun had originated . The name Amu Darya is also related to the Tamil name Amman. The name Farangis is the combination of B[p]a+Ra+Ankh and it means that ‘the female with rounded and white or glistening head or face'. Parangi is the name of the vegetable in Tamil Nadu . Tamils used to call the British as men with ‘ paranghe head' [Paranghe thalaiyan] during the colonial period, which means the head which is similar to that of big, rounded ‘paranghi Kaai- vegetable' or that of the big rounded white sun .



Although the identification of the Turanian tribe with the Turks is a late development, since the term Turanian originally applied to Eastern Iranian tribes of Central Asia, Turks cultivated the legends of Afrasiab as a Turkish hero after they had come into contact with the Iranians.   Mahmud al-Kashgari   quotes in his   Diwan lo?at al-Tork   (5th/11th century   a number of elegiac verses lamenting the death of   Alp Er Tunga .


Alp Er Tunga is the corrupted form of the Tamil name A Para Thee Angan. Thee is the fire ; A Para means the great sky ; Angan means the body part. Hence Alp Er Tunga means the Thee Angan of the sky namely the sun. Thangam --gold is the related word in Tamil. The Tamil word ‘Anga' [n[ gave rise to the ancient Egyptian word Ankh. The word ‘Ankh' is the combination of An+ ka where' an' is the' Andam ‘or the universe and ‘ka' is the sun. Diwan logat al Tork is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Theeyavan + Loka + Athee Ozhi + Thiriyan.


Some linguists derive the word from the Indo-Iranian root * tura-   "strong, quick, sword (Pashto)",   Pashto   turan (thuran)   "swordsman". Others link it to Old Iranian * tor   "dark, black", related to the New Persian   tar (ik) , Pashto   tor (Thor) , and possibly English   dark . In this case, it is a reference to the "dark civilization" of Central Asian nomads in contrast to the "illuminated"   Zoroastrian   civilization of the settled Arya.


It is absolutely wrong to say that the [dark civilization] was established by the nomadic dark people. The dark civilization was an agricultural one on the riverside of Amu Darya and it had be established by the settled dark people. The white nomads are wanderers in the desert lands - steppe plains just like the white sun and hence they were not exposed to many pagan gods unlike the settled agricultural society and so the nomads were the followers of Zoroaster. The word Thirai [ Thiriyan] means the dark blue sky or the dark blue sea and hence the Thiraiyans or the Turans were not only agricultural people but also they were sea farers. On the other hand the sun worshipping [single god] people were only nomads and they neither knew about the arts of the agricultural society or the art of ship building. The English word ‘Tar ‘had originated from the Tamil word Thirai.



In the Persian epic   Shahnameh , the term   Turan   ("land of the Turya" like   Eran, Iran   = "land of the Arya") refers to the inhabitants of the eastern-Iranian border and beyond the   Oxus . According to the foundation myth given in the   Shahnameh , King Firedun (= Avestan   Traetaona ) had three sons,   Salm ,   Tur   and   Iraj , among whom he divided the world:   Asia Minor was given to Salm, Turan to Tur and Iran to Iraj. The older brothers killed the younger, but he was avenged by his grandson, and the Iranians became the rulers of the world. However, the war continued for generations. In the   Shahnameh , the word Turan appears nearly 150 times and that of   Iran   nearly 750 times.


Shahnameh is the corrupted form of the Tamil word ‘Maha Sena' which means the ‘great warriors'. Iran is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Oraiy [an], the sun. Firedun is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Peru [Orai] theeyon. The Avestan name ‘Oraetaona' is the corrupted form of the Tamil name ‘Orai theeyanon'. The name of the continent Asia is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Aa sey[on] , which means the ‘ ancient land of the sun god ‘.


From the early 20th century western languages borrowed the word   Turan   as a general designation for   Central Asia . Accordingly, the phrase   Turan Plain   or   Turan Depression became a geographical term referring to a part of Central Asia.


Main articles:   Uralic languages ,   Altaic languages ,   Dravidian languages , and   Caucasian languages .

The term   Turanian , now obsolete, formerly occurred in the classifications used by European (especially   German ,   Hungarian   and   Slovak )   ethnologists ,   linguists   and Romantics   to designate populations speaking non- Indo-European , non- Semitic   and non- Hamitic   language   and specially speakers of   Altaic ,   Dravidian ,   Uralic ,   Japanese ,   Korean and other languages.


Max Müller   (1823-1900) classified the Turanian language family into different sub-branches. The Northern or Ural–Altaic division branch comprised Tungusic, Mongolic, Turkic, Samoyedic, and Finnic. The Southern branch consisted of Dravidian languages like Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, Malayalam, and other Dravidian languages. The   languages of the Caucasus   Müller classified as the   scattered languages of the Turanian family . Müller also began to muse whether   Chinese   belonged to the Northern branch or Southern branch.


The main relationships between Dravidian, Uralic, and Altaic languages were considered   typological . According to   Encyclopædia Britannica : "Language families, as conceived in the historical study of languages, should not be confused with the quite separate classifications of languages by reference to their sharing certain predominant features of grammatical structure." As of 2013   linguists classify languages according the method of comparative linguistics rather than using their typological features. According to   Encyclopædia Britannica , Max's Muller's "efforts were most successful in the case of the Semites, whose affinities are easy to demonstrate, and probably least successful in the case of the Turanian peoples, whose early origins are hypothetical".   The scholarly community no longer uses the word   Turanian   to denote a classification of language families. The relationship between Uralic and Altaic, whose speakers were also designated as Turanian people in 19th century European literature, remains uncertain.


Turanid race

In European discourse, the words   Turan   and   Turanian   can designate a certain mentality, i.e. the   nomadic   in contrast to the   urbanized   agricultural   civilizations. This usage probably ]   matches the Zoroastrian concept of the   Turya , which is not primarily a linguistic or ethnic designation, but rather a name of the infidels that opposed the civilization based on the preaching of   Zoroaster .

Combined with physical anthropology, the concept of the Turanian mentality has a clear potential for cultural polemic. Thus in 1838 the scholar J.W. Jackson described the   Turanid or   Turanian   race   in the following words:

The Turanian is the impersonation of material power. He is the merely muscular man at his maximum of collective development. He is not inherently a savage, but he is radically a barbarian. He does not live from hand to mouth, like a beast, but neither has he in full measure the moral and intellectual endowments of the true man. He can labour and he can accumulate, but he cannot think and aspire like a Caucasian. Of the two grand elements of superior human life, he is more deficient in the sentiments than in the faculties. And of the latter, he is better provided with those that conduce to the acquisition of knowledge than the origination of ideas.


According to Iranian nationalist poet   Mohammad Taghi Bahar , the name   Turan   derives from the   Avestan   "Tau-Raodan", which means "Further on the River", where the "River" equates to the   Amu Darya .


Polish philosopher   Feliks Koneczny   claimed the existence of a distinctive   Turanian civilization , encompassing both Turkic and some   Slavic peoples , such as   Russians . This civilization's hallmark is militarism,   anti-intellectualism   and an absolute obedience to the ruler. Koneczny saw this civilization as inherently inferior to Latin (Western European) civilization.

Thiraiyans of Tamil nadu and the Turaniyan ; The earliest Tamil literature which throws light on a region associated with the Pallavas is   Ahananuru which identifies two Tiriyans — the elder Tiriyan in   Gudur , Nellore district, with a kingdom extending to   Tirupati   or   Thiruvengadam ; and the younger Tiraiyan whose capital as Kanchipuram .   The   Sangam   work,   Perumbanarruppatai , traces the line of the younger Tiriyan (also known as Ilam Tiriyan) to the   Solar dynasty   of   Ikshvakus ; later Tamil commentators identify him as the illegitimate child of a Chola king and a   Naga   princess.


Turaniyan are the thiraiyan people, the Dravidian. Many kings of ancient Thamilakam had the name Thiraiyan. The same Dravidian who established the ‘Thrace' in Greece and the Tyre city in Lebanon.


Turanian   is a controversial term   that has been used in reference to diverse groups of people. It has currency in   Turkish nationalism ,   Turanism ,   Turanian Society   and   Pan-Turkism .
Many of the uses of the word are obsolete. It may be:

•  An Iranian ethnic group mentioned in the   Avesta , see   Turan .

•  Any historical people of   Transoxiana   or present-day   Turkistan .

•  Any historical   Ural–Altaic   people, in particular:

•  The   Turkic peoples   during   Turkic expansion .

•  The   Huns   described by the Europeans and Chinese.

•  The   Mongols , who are distantly related to the Turks.

•  Some sources have mentioned the   Japanese people .

•  The   Sami   or Lapps of northern   Scandinavia .

•  Finno-Ugric peoples like the   Finns ,   Estonians   and   Hungarians .

•  The   Dravidian people   of southern India and Pakistan are theorized to have Turanian ancestors.

•  Speakers of   Caucasian Languages .

•  Non-Semitic and non-Indo-European peoples of the Late Bronze Age were theorized to have Turanian ancestors, see   Hurro-Urartian   and   Etruscans .

•  The   Basques   of Western   Europe   (northern   Spain   and southwest   France ) were theorized to have Turanian ancestors.

•  Turanianism   promotes the idea of Turanians are the oldest ethnocultural groups of humanity, and how   East Asians ,   sub-Saharan Africans ,   white   Caucasians   or   Indo-Europeans ("Aryans"), and   indigenous peoples of the Americas   are theoretic descendants of a former Turanian "race" of the last ice age.

•  The term formerly used for the   Caucasian Avars .


The Tamil name ‘Thulukan' is the combination of Thee +la+ Khan which means the white skinned people as that of the sun . The related words are Thilakan, Thaluka and ‘Thalluki minukki'.


The   Karakum Desert ,[ desert] also spelled   Kara-Kum   and   Gara Gum   ( Turkmen :   Garagum ,   Kazakh : '???????') is a   desert in   Central Asia . Its name means   Black Sand   in   Turkic languages . It occupies about 70 percent, or 350,000 km², of the area of Turkmenistan .


The name Karakorum or "Kharkhorin" in Mongolian language might be translated as "black quarter/space". "Khar" means "black" and "khorin" probably shares the same root as the verb "khori (to imprison/hold)" as in "khorigdoh" that means "to be imprisoned/held". "Khori" also means "twenty" like "khorin mori (twenty horses)", but it is unlikely that there would be a "black twenty".



Kara Kum is the corrupted form of the Tamil name karu Koram-- which means Karu Ko Aran. Ko Aran is lord Siva, the sun god and Karu means dark or black. Ko Aram also means the abode of the sun god. ‘Aran Manai' means' palace' in Tamil. KO vil means the place where the king /god reside. Khori is the Ko Orai or the Ko ori.



Covering much of present day   Turkmenistan , the Karakum Desert lies east of the   Caspian Sea , with the Aral Sea   to the north and the   Amu Darya   river and the   Kyzyl Kum   desert to the northeast. In modern times, with the shrinking of the Aral Sea, the extended " Aral Karakum " has appeared on the former seabed, with an estimated area of 15,440 sq mi/40,000 km². Although the level of the Aral Sea has fluctuated over its existence, the most recent level drop was caused by the former   Soviet Union   building massive irrigation projects in the region. Although the   North Aral Sea   is currently rising, the   South Aral Sea   is still dropping, thus expanding the size of the desert.

Turkmenistan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Thee Ra kakku [ Akhu] Mani Thanam, which means the place of Ra kkan , the star , sun god. Rakkaye is the female counterpart of Rakkan. Caspian is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Kasi appan. , where ka is the sky and sa is the the evening sun [or moon] , Appan in Tamil means the lord or god . The words Appam or Aappam and Appalam indicate the rounded white sun. Kyzyl kum could be the corrupted form of the Tamil word ko sa lai Koa ram or Kosalai Karam . Aral is the corrupted form of the Tamil name, Aralai (Aa + Ra+ la[i] ) , which means the' sea ‘ .[ -english.php?!=1042]. Alarai also means a kind of lime of stone.



Surxondaryo River , also   Surkhandarya River ,   Surxon River ,   Surkhan River ,   Surkhan Darya   ( darya   means "river") is a river in   Uzbekistan , a   right tributary   of the   Amu Darya . Length: 175 km., basin: 13,500 sw. km. The   Karatag River   also flows into this river.It give the name to the   Surxondaryo Province .[ River]


Sur Khandarya is the pure Tamil name, Saran or Suran Kanda Ra yan. Kandan is the Dravidian god lord Murugan . Kanda [KO andam -- the universe] means the lord who moves from east to west. Rayan means the king. Saran or Suran means the glistening white sun.


The   Sherabad River ,   Shirabad River   or   Sherabad Darya   (Darya Meaning River) is a right tributary of the   Amu Darya   in south-central   Tajikistan . It is about 130 kilometres (81 mi) long and drains an area of 11,000 square kilometres (4,200 sq mi). The river rises in the arid foothills of the   Gissar Range   and flows south through   steppe   before flowing through a mountain ridge to empty into the   Central Asia   plain near   Shirabad . The river turns south and flows past   Akkürgon , to flow into the Amu Darya near   Shuro-obod . Because of   irrigation   water use, most of the water in the Sherabad no longer reaches the Amu Darya and its eventual destination in the   Aral Sea . After flowing out of the mountains the remaining water in the river is usually salty so it is unsuitable for further water use. In dry years, most of the river dries up before reaching the Amu Darya.


The name Sherabad is the combination of Sa+ Ra+Ba+th[a]. Tha in Tamil means the' Thanner' (water} or cool. There is an artificially colored juicy , sweet, ice water called ‘sharbath' is sold in Tamil Nadu in hot summer days.


Zeravshan River   (also   Zarafshan   or   Zarafshon,   Uzbek :   Zarafshon , from the   Persian   word   Persian :   zar-afshan , meaning "the sprayer of gold") is a river in   Central Asia . Its name, "sprayer of gold" in   Persian , refers to the presence of   gold -bearing sands in the upper reaches of the river. To the ancient Greeks it was known as the 'Polytimetus'. It was also formerly known as Sughd   River.


Zrarafshon is the corrupted of the Tamil name Sara Basan [Sa+ Ra+Ba+sa+an] . Sara [ Sa+ Ra] means the evening sun or the setting golden sun . Polytimetus is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Bala or pazha thee mathi. Sughd is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Sokka[n] thee, the golden the khusana king of persia color of the burning fire.


Samarkand ; [   ( Uzbek :   Samarqand ; Russian :   ?????????   from   Sogdian : "Stone Fort" or "Rock Town") is the second-largest city in   Uzbekistan   and the capital of   Samarqand Province . The city is most noted for its central position on the Silk Road   between   China   and the West, and for being an Islamic centre for scholarly study. In the 14th century it became the capital of the empire of   Timur   (Tamerlane) and is the site of his mausoleum (the   Gur-e Amir ). The   Bibi-Khanym Mosque   (a modern replica) remains one of the city's most notable landmarks. The   Registan   was the ancient center of the city.


The city was known by an abbreviated name of Marakanda when   Alexander the Great   took it in 332 BC. There are various theories of how Marakanda evolved into Samarkanda/Samarkan. One derives the name from the   Old Persian   Asmara , "stone", "rock", and   Sogdian   kand , "fort", "town".


Marakanda is a pure Tamil name Maran Kandan, the sun god, lord Murugan . He is also called in short form as Maaran or kandan. The name ‘Murugan' [ Kumaran -in Martham land and Kandan in Mullai land] must be older than the existence of the name of the place Samarakand atleast by several centuries. The word Maran is the combination of Maa+ Ra+ an. ‘Maa ‘means the' great' and ‘Ra ‘is the' sun' and ‘an' is the ‘andam' or the universe . Maaran can be also read as Maa Aran which means the' big or great fort'. The word Kanda is the combination of Ka + andam which means the universe which is hot [made by the Maran the sun]. Markandayaen was the name of a person in Hindu Purana who was eternally youthful, who is none other than the sun god. Sur Kandaraya, the name of the Khusana king also has the same meaning. The word Kanda can also be read as Ko+andam which means the ruler of the universe, the Maran, the sun god. Mars, the name of the planet originated from the Dravidian sun god-- the warrior god, Maran. Kanda or kand is the short form of the Tamil word Ka[a]ndam which means a big or wide land [ earth] or a continent as in Lemuria K[a]andam. Kandam or kand signifies the blue sky as in the case of the Thiru Neela kandan or Thiriyan Neela Kandan or Turan Neela Kandan, the sun god , lord Siva. Other examples are Aranya Kandam and Yuthha Kandam. Mani kandan means the star of the sky, the sun god, lord Murugan. Kandam also has the meaning of ‘ danger'. Manikandam is the name of the village near Trichy, Tamil Nadu. Uppu kandam is the name of the place near kotha mangalam, Ernakulam district of kerala, India. Uppu kandam also signifies the dried [kept for drying in a big place] mutton recipe of ancient Tamil Nadu. Kanda kottam, Chennai, has a temple for lord Murugan alias Maran. Lord Murugan or Maran is also called as Kanda samy. The sacred text' kanda puranam ‘was composed by Kasiappa Sivachariyar in praise of lord Murugan. Kaantha, kaantham [magnet] , Kantha mani and sooriya Kaanthi are related words and proper names. ‘Kaandu' in Tamil means [unakkenna aven maela kaanda'a?] Jealous or hatred [hot] feelings. Kandu in Tamil means ‘ I have seen'. Koonthal means the scalp hair of women. Konthu in Tamil means the sticky ‘gum'.' Kondai ‘means the rounded ball of hair tuft [like that of the blue sky ]of the women. ‘Kaanda Mirugam ‘is the Rhinocerus. Here the word ‘Kaanda' means the ‘big' --animal. Kanthal is a flower. Kandeepam, the sun is the combination of ka +anda + thee+ ba+Om. ‘Kandorari kael' in Tamil means “ask the person who has witnessed”. Here the word ‘Kandorai' means the Orai of the kandam, who is the witness for every thing in the earth and He is none other than the sun god. The Tamil word ‘Kondattam' , celebration [particularly with fire works] , is the combination of Ko +andam + Aa +thee+om.


The opposite of Kandam is ‘Kundam' which means the uterus. Vaikundam is the paradise of the earth. ‘Kundaan' is a kind of vessel. Kundru or kundram means hill. ‘Kundi' means the hip and the buttocks. ‘Kundu ‘means the rounded body shape or the ball. Ball [the rounded object] is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Baal [ the sun]. Kundalani, kundam +la+-yoni is the union of male [kundala] and female [yoni] genitals. Kundalam [Ko +anda+ la] is the sun. The word ‘Sandala ‘is the combination of Sa+anda +la , opposite of Kundala. ‘Koondu is a ‘small room made for birds'. ‘Kuntham' is the sun ray-- the ‘vel, the arrow, the spear like in senguntham, sengunthar. ‘Kantham' means the magnet. Kanthal means jealous or romantic, hot feelings. ‘Kantha' is a proper name. Kantha is ‘hot' and ‘Santha' means ‘cool'. ‘Kanthi vittathu' means over fried.


Kandu in Tamil; The Tamil word ‘nool kandu' means bundle or ball of thread. ‘Kal kandu' [Sarkarai kandu] in Tamil means a ball [piece] of sugar. ‘Konthu' in Tamil means the sticky gum . The English word ‘candy' could be etymiologically related to the Tamil word ‘kar kandu' or ‘Konthu ‘.


‘Kantharvan' is the corrupted form of the Tamil name ‘Kantha Oraiyan, ‘Ko Aanda oruvan'.


Uttarakhand , formerly   Uttaranchal, is a   state   in the   northern   part of   India . It is often referred to as the "Land of the Gods" due to the many holy   Hindu   temples   and pilgrimage centers found throughout the state. []

Uttarakhand's name is derived from the Sanskrit words   uttara   meaning north, and   kha??   meaning country or part of a country. The name finds mention in early   Hindu scriptures   as the combined region of Kedarkhand (present day   Garhwal ) and Manaskhand (present day   Kumaon ).

Jharkhand   ( Jharkha?? , is a   state   in eastern   India . It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar   on 15 November 2000. Jharkhand"—(jaher-khond) jaher- worship place of kherwar (munda, santal, etc.) and khond- area. Some think the Land of "Jungles" (forests) and "Jharis" (bushes). []


Uthararakand means ‘the top of the universe', blue the sky and the counterpart in the earth is Utharakand of India. Uthiram in Tamil means ‘above' or ‘the top'. Uthiram also means a ‘question'. The word Jharkand is the combination of sa+ Ra + KO +andam where the ‘sa' is the moon and ‘Ra ‘is the sun.




Gondwana []   is a region of   India . Named after the   Gondi people   who live there (though they can also be found in other parts of India), the name of the ancient continent of Gondwana land   was derived from Gondwana, because some of the earliest rock formations of this continent were first investigated in part of the region, in modern   Odisha . Gondwana has a relatively high proportion of peoples of the "scheduled tribes" of India, which include the Gonds. The scheduled tribes are recognised as economically and socially disadvantaged. They form a majority of the population in many districts.


The   Gondi   (Gondi) or   Gond   people [ people] are people in central India, spread over the states of   Madhya Pradesh , eastern   Maharashtra ( Vidarbha ),   Chhattisgarh , northern   Andhra Pradesh , and   Western Odisha   (majhi or gan community). With over four million people, they are the largest   tribe   in Central India.


Gond or Rajgond are same tribes. The term Raj Gond was widely used in 1950s, but has now become almost obsolete, probably because of the political eclipse of the Gond Rajas.


The   Gondi language   is related to   Telugu   and other   Dravidian languages . About half of Gonds speak Gondi languages,   while the rest speak   Indo-Aryan languages   including   Hindi .


Gondi   ( Gondi ) is a South-Central   Dravidian   language, spoken by about two million   Gond people ,   chiefly in the states of   Madhya Pradesh ,   Gujarat ,   Andhra Pradesh ,   Maharashtra ,   and Chhattishgarh   and in various adjoining areas of neighbouring states. Although it is the language of the Gond people, only about half of them still speak it. Gondi has a rich folk literature, examples of which are marriage songs and narrations.


For many years during the British colonial period of India the Gonds were considered to have performed human sacrifices, although this notion was later discredited.


The Gonds have   scheduled tribe   status in most of the   Indian states and are the second largest tribe in the country and are believed to be of Dravidian stock.


The name Gondi is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Ka +andam and Gondi means the people living in the Ka andam, the dark blue[ as that of the sky-ka] mountains or forests of the earth . Gondwana is the Tamil Kantha vanam.

The English name Kandy, Srilanka, which originated during the colonial era, is derived from an anglicised version of the Sinhalese Kanda Uda Rata (meaning the land on the mountain) or Kanda Uda Pas Rata (the five counties/countries on the mountain).


Here the word Kanda denotes the mountain and so Kandan means mountain dweller, lord Murugan.


Guindy National Park[ National Park] is a 2.82 km 2 (1.09 sq mi) protected area of Tamil Nadu, located in Chennai, South India, is the 8th smallest National Park of India and one of the very few national parks situated inside a city. The park is an extension of the grounds surrounding Raj Bhavan, formerly known as the 'Guindy Lodge', the official residence of the Governor of Tamil Nadu, India. It extends deep inside the governor's estate, enclosing beautiful forests, scrub lands, lakes and streams.


Once covering an area of 5 km 2 (1.93 sq mi) of one of the last remnants of tropical dry evergreen forest of the Coromandel Coast, Guindy Park was originally a game reserve. In the early 1670s, a garden space was carved out of the Guindy forest and a residence called the Guindy Lodge was built by Governor William Langhorne (1672–1678), which had helped make St Thomas Mount a salubrious place for rest and recreation.

The name of the forest land Guindy in Chennai, the Dravidian land ,is the corrupted form of the word Kandam and it denotes the forest as the Srilankan Kandy.



Gondi, Kandy and Guindy are pure Tamil words and all have the same meaning.


Mandai -- Ma Andam [ skull] , Manthan -- the human , Kindi - to stir and Karandi - the spoon are some of the Tamil related words related to Kandam .

•  Samarkand--Registan Ensemble . Registan[] became the city square when the life in Afrosiab stopped. Since that time Registan was reconstructed several times. Today it is surrounded by the three medreses Ulugbek, Shirdor and Tilla Kari.  

Registan is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Ra+ ka+ tha +nam, Rakathanam. Stan [place] is the corrupted from of the Tamil word , Thanam [ the letter ‘s' is added before the Tamil word ‘than[am]' in Sanskrit. . Hence Rakathanam or Regsitan means the place of the sun god Ra -Kan. Thee = nam is in the sky and thanam is in the earth. Thee is hot and it is the fire. Thinam [daily] is a related word. Tha is ‘cool ‘and it is the water or the milk. Hence the breast is called in Dravidian language, Tamil, as ‘Thanam'. ‘Thaen' in Tamil means honey and it is etymologically related to the word ‘thanam'. Thanam, Thana Bakiyam Thaanam [gift] are related proper names and words in Tamil.The Tamil word ‘Mula thanam ‘means capital. Muali thanam is the correct word where Mulai in Tamil is the breast. Mulasthanam is not at all a Sanskrit word as people think, and it signifies the original place [breast] from where all human beings came in to existence. Mulai and the milk also signifies the ‘male milk' namely the' semen' and hence the place of the lingam [ also yoni - the karpa Graham ][ from which all human came in to existence] is called as Mulasthanam. The name of the city in Pakistan , Multan is purely the corrupted form of the Tamil word ‘ Mulai thanam' the place of temple of the sun [ lord Siva] from which the Dravidian[ Thiriyan or Turan or Thiru ] people came in to existence. In the ancient past when the Dravidian people were about to mov from the Kurungi lands to Mullai lands , the Mulai thanam , ie. The gift or the ‘donation of milk ‘was considered to be the greatest deed as we consider ‘blood donation ‘in our present days.


Shirdor Medrese , ( on Registan, opposite Ulugbek medrese ). Medrese Shirdor repeats the facade and composition of Ulugbek medrese opposite. In Shirdor medrese the first floor is preserved, where as it is destroyed in Ulugbek medrese. The decorations of entrance portal are illustrating the tiger (“shir” that's why it is called Shirdor. Ornaments and decorations are very rich, but its quality is worse than of Ulugbek medrese. Shirdor medrese was erected by order of Uzbek feudal lord  Yalangtush  in 1619-1632.

Shirdor is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Thirai daran or Thiru tharan, the lord of the sky, the sun god. The sun god is called as Maa orai in Tamil. If we write as Orai Ma it will be read as Ari ma , the lion.

Madrese is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Ma Thee Rasa, the big fire, the sun god. The study about the sun god was the aim of the people of those days. It was considered as the wisdom by the knowledge seekers of that period. Chennai, formerly Madras is the combination of Ma+thee+Ra+sa, the dwelling place of the sun god, the sun god who has all the wisdom .


Ulugbek Medrese , ( on the western side of Registan Square ). The oldest medrese on Registan is a large rectangular building with monumental portal and a yard with four-verandahs, surrounded by cells for students and with four classrooms in the corners. In the western part is a winter mosque. The corners of the building are decorated with high minarets. The decorations consists of glazed and unglazed bricks, mosaics, majolica,carving marble. The most beautiful decorations are zhose of the main portal, where geometric, vegetative and epigraphic decorations were used. Inscriptions mention Ulugbek and several dates relating to the stages of construction. In 823 (1420) when the construction of the medrasah was finished.  

Ulubek could be the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ulaka Bakiya[m] , which means the gift for the world. It could be the corrupted form of the original name ‘ Bu loka Bakiya ‘ wher Bu lokam means the earth.


Tilla Kari Medrese .


The Tilla Kari madrasa was commissioned a decade after the adjacent Shir Dar madrasa (1619-1636) by the same patron, Shaybanid feudal general, Alchin Yalantush Bahadur between 1646-60. Once part of the complex built by Timur's wife, Tuman-Aka in the fourteenth century, the site had housed the Mirzoi caravan sarai.


The Tilla Kari madrasa was conceived as the last, largest and most embellished structure of the famed Registan Square. Its name means ''gold-covered', referring to the lavish gilt decoration of its mosque's domed chamber.


The name Thilla Kari is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Thillai Ka orai. Ka orai means the sun god who is in golden in color. The word' Thillai ‘signifies the golden color. The word Thillai is the combination of Thee +la, where Thee is the fire and la is the bright or glistening. In Chidambaram town , Tamil Nadu there is temple for the sun god, Nata Rasa , and he is called as' Thillai Nata Rasa' as he is the dancer /ruler of the golden Ambalam, the golden sky . Near Chidambaram there are many trees by name Thillai. Lord Shiva is captured in pose as Natarasa performing the   Ananda Tandava   ("Dance of Delight") in the golden hall of the shrine   Pon Ambalam   ( ???? ???????) . ‘Thalai' a related word in Tamil means the rounded head or ‘the most importent one ‘. Thee + la has got corrupted to become tha la. Tha is cool and thee is hot. La is the light or the moon. Thala could have corrupted to become ‘Thilla'. Theela n is the name of the Greek island name Delos. Thalam is pure Tamil word which got corrupted in Sanskrit as Sthalam. Thaalam in Tamil means rhythm. Thali kairu is the sacred marriage thread. ‘Thalai yari' is the thalai Orai. ‘Thaazhai' in Tamil means the ‘feet' and ‘Thazhi' is the green leaves.


Thilia tepa' [ The golden hill]of Afghanistan , anicient Bactria is the Tamil Thillai Thebam where thillai - theelai is the thalai or the gold and thebam means the light. Hence Thillai Tepa in Tamil means the ‘Golden light the sun god. Tepa is the combination of thee +ba.


Bukhara   ( Uzbek :   Buxoro ;  Russian :   Bukhara ;   Turkish :   Buhara ), []from the   Soghdian   ßuxarak   ("lucky place"), is the   capital   of the   Bukhara Province ( viloyat ) of   Uzbekistan . The nation's fifth-largest city, it has a population of 263,400 (2009 census estimate). The region around Bukhara has been inhabited for at least five millennia, and the city has existed for half that time. Located on the   Silk Road , the city has long been a center of trade, scholarship, culture, and religion. The historic center of Bukhara, which contains numerous   mosques   and   madrassas , has been listed by   UNESCO   as a   World Heritage Site .   Persian - speaking   Tajiks   constitute the largest element of the city's population. The city has long had a mixed population including   Jews and other   ethnic   minorities .


Encyclopædia Iranica   mentions that the name Bukhara is possibly derived from the   Soghdian   ßuxarak   (Place of Good Fortune).


The name Bukhara is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Poo Ka Ran, namely the sun . Poo in Tamil means the fire flames [generally the flower] and Karan means the sun. The name Bukhara is the combination of Bu + ka+ Ra+an, where Bu or Ba is the ocean or the earth ; Ka is the sky and ra is the sun; an is the andam or universe. Hence Bukhara is the place where the sun god is the ruler. What is the significance of the Tamil name Poo Karan or Poo Karam or Poo Kaaran [ the sun god] in relation with a central Asian city , a city far away from Tamil speaking Dravidian land of South India? The name Bukhara , the sun city go would have got its name because of the influence of Tamil language on Persian language via the fire worshippers of Zoroastrian religion which was the prevailing religion of that period in central Asia.


The name Bukhara is very much similar to the name of an ancient city of Tamilakam, the Puhar.


Puhar   ( Tamil :   ?????????? ) (also known as   Poompuhar ) is a town in the   Nagapattinam district   in the southern Indian state of   Tamil Nadu . It was once a flourishing ancient port city known as   Kaveri puhum pattinam , which for a while served as the capital of the early Chola   kings in   Tamilakkam . Puhar is located near the end point of the   Kaveri   river, aside the sea coast. Much of the town was washed away by what is now speculated to be a tsunami around 500 AD. Ancient pottery dating back to the 4th or 5th century AD has been discovered off shore around this town.


Puhar [Ba+ ka+Ra] of ancient Tamilakam is very similar to the name of the central Asian city Bukhara [Ba+ ka+Ra].


Pushkar   is a town in the   Ajmer district   in the   Indian   state   of   Rajasthan . It is situated 14 km (8.7 mi) northwest of Ajmer   at an average elevation of 510 m (1,670 ft) and is one of the five sacred dhams (pilgrimage site) for devout   Hindus .


Pushkar in Sanskrit means blue lotus flower.   Hindus believe that the gods released a swan with a lotus in its beak and let it fall on earth where Brahma would perform a grand   yagna . The place where the lotus fell was called Pushkar. Pushkar word may be derived from word 'Pushkarni'means- lake.It may be derived from word Pushpa means flower and Kar mean hand.


The name Puskar has the ‘sa' in the middle unlike the names. Puhar or Bukhara addition to the name. The name Puskar is the combination of Ba+ sa+ka+ra. Baskar or Baskaran [sun] is a related proper name.


Bokaro Steel City   often known as City of Scholars   is a major industrial city and the 4th largest city in the State of   Jharkhand , in   India . It is the district headquarters of   Bokaro   which is one of the most industrialized zones in   India . It is home of the largest steel plants in India- Bokaro Steel Plant and Electrosteel Plant and several other medium and small industries is situated here.

Bokaro, the name originated from the river Bokaro in the west side of the district.  

The Indian city or the river Bokaro is also the combination of the Dravidian Tamil magical letters Ba+ ka+ra.




Po-i-Kalan complex ;[ en kalan complex]


The title  Po-i Kalan  (also  Poi Kalân , meaning the "Grand Foundation"), belongs to the architectural complex located at the base of the great  minaret  Kalân.

•  Kalyan minaret . More properly, Minâra-i Kalân, (Pesian/Tajik for the "Grand Minaret"). It is made in the form of a circular-pillar brick tower, narrowing upwards, of 9 meters (29.53 ft) diameter at the bottom, 6 meters (19.69 ft) overhead and 45.6 meters (149.61 ft) high. Also known as the Tower of Death, as for centuries criminals were executed by being tossed off the top.

•  Kalân Mosque  (Masjid-i Kalân), arguably completed in 1514, is equal to the  Bibi-Khanym Mosque  in Samarkand in size. Although they are of the same type of building, they are absolutely different in terms of art of building.


The name ‘Poi Kalan] is the pure Tamil name Poi kalan, lord Siva. Poi means false and kalan means the lord of the time, the sun god lord Siva, the time keeper of the universe. Kaal in Tamil means the' leg' or' foundation'. Hence Poi Kalan means the person with false leg or the lord with no legs, the sun god who travels from east to west without any legs.

There is one folk dance in Tamil Nadu and other places of India, called ‘ poi Kaal' Kuthirai Aatam . Aatam in Tamil means ‘dance' and ‘kuthirai ‘ is the horse. Here the performer dances seated on a dummy horse with false[no legs ] wooden legs [ legs made of Maram - the wood -- the false legs]. The horse without legs symbolically signifies the sun god travelling on a chariot pulled by the horses.

Poikkal Kuthirai Aatam is performed bearing a lightweight dummy horse around the dancer's waist. This dance may be called   Puravi Naatiyam   (Horse Dance),   Poi Kuthirai   (False Horse) and Marakkaladal   (Wooden Leg Dancing). It is also popular in states other than Tamil Nadu. The dance is known as   Saithikoda   in Orissa,   Theelu Gurram   in Andhra Pradesh,   and Kachikoti   in Rajasthan and Kuthikali   in Kerala.

t is said that Poikkal Kuthirai Aatam was introduced to Tamil Nadu by the Maratha kings. There are also references to this art form in early Tamil epics. The dance is one of the 11 dances performed by Madhavi, a character in Silappadikaram. This work was written in the 2nd century and is one of the ancient epics of the Tamil language. References to Poikkal Kuthirai Aatam can also be found in the epic Tholkaapiam. In one section, the heroine's parents ban the marriage between their daughter and her lover. The hero dons a horse-like structure made up of maple leaves and starts protesting in the streets to marry the girl. Mentions in these epics indicate that this art form originated many centuries ago.


There is a legend that Goddess Durga used to perform this dance. To take revenge, her enemies disguised themselves as poisonous snakes and scorpions, and planned to bite her while dancing. Durga was aware of their plan and for self-protection she tied wood around her legs and danced. As a result of heavy dance steps made by her, her enemies died. This gave the dance the name of Marakkaladal, or Wooden Leg Dancing. Later, the dance was renamed Poikkal Kuthirai.


The dummy horse is typically made up of jute, cardboard, paper and glass. It contains a hole into which the dancer can fit. The legs of the horse are, of course, the legs of the dancers, but it looks as if the dancer is sitting on a horse. The dancers also don wooden legs that sound like the horse's hooves. The dummy horse is adorned with colorful skirts that swing around with the movements of the dancers.


This dance requires extensive training and skill as the wooden legs constrict one's movement and are also heavy. In some places, such as Madurai, there is a practice of performing the dance without wooden legs and they dance barefoot, wearing only anklets.


This dance is typically performed in oorvalam, meaning procession, which covers all the areas surrounding the temple during festivals. Dancers often portray kings and queens and sport swords. Sometimes, the dance is performed by groups of eight or ten dancers standing in circles or lines.


Poikkal Kuthirai Aatam is performed to the accompaniment of Naiyandi Melam. A Naiyandi Melam musical ensemble typically includes two nathaswarams   (wind-pipes), one   sudhipetti , and one   thaalam , and several drums played with drum sticks such as   thavils ,   pambai ,   kidumutti   or   sinukuchatti . This is the style followed in Kongunadu region of Tamil Nadu. In southern parts of the state, an   urumi —a drum with two conical heads—is also used along with the other instruments. [www.tamilnadu/ arts/poi kal- kuthirai-aatam.html]


Hence the meaning of the Poi Kalan -- as ‘ Great foundation ‘ in the literature is totally wrong as per the discussion of ' Poi Kaal kuthirai Aatam'. The etymology of the Tamil word ‘Kuthirai' [ horse] is Ko + Aathirai ,the sun , the ruler or the traveler of the sky Hence ‘Poi kaal kuthirai' means the sun pulled by horses[ the sun rays] who have no legs.In Persian language ‘kalan' means the' great ‘and ‘Poi' means' the foot '. It seems from the etymology of the word Kuthirai, horse, that the Dravidians were very much familiar with that animal in the ancient past apart from the bull. Dravidian people were the ancient people who domesticated the bull from the pre historic times.

The great minaret Kalan must signify the sun god, the sunray[s]. The word minaret is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Mani Arathee, Mani + Aa+ Ra + thee.

Kalyan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Kalaiyan-- lord Siva. The basic composition of the word ‘ Kalyan' is ka+ la+an. Kalyan is a proper name in Tamil Nadu and Kaliyanam in Tamil means marriage, the union of Ka+la, the sun and the moon , the male and the female .

Religious sciences in the Muslim East in the Early Middle ages consisted of Fikh and Kalam. Fikh is the study of ther basics and sources of Muslim law.

Kalam is also a part of Ulum al -Islam. It began developing from the first days of Islam's appearance as a religion and in due course became a part of the Muslim religious system. Kalam is teaching about the religio - philosophical essence of Islam and its theoretical foundations. Some followers of of Kalam have interpreted it's dogma on the basis of the mind, but the majority have traditionally followed religious authorities. In the course of the development of Kalam , it's scholars [ muthakallim] debated the role of reason and free will.Mutha kallim also discussed the nature and characteristics of Allah, prophetic visions and so on.Kalam contains valuable information about Christian , Jewish , and Greek sects , about the religions of Pre - Islamic Persia , including Zoroastrianism and about the dualistic conceptions prominent in India. it gives evidence that , together with Islam and Christianity in Maverannakhr , Judaism , Hinduism and Zoroastrianism also co existed.

[Ref == From the book of the ‘Light from the depth of centuries', Imam Al- Bukhari, 1998, TaskentPublishing and printing concern]


The kalam in the above context is the teachings about the religio -philosophical essence of Islam and its theoretical foundations. The word Kalam is the corrupted form of the Tamil word kalai ‘which means ‘the study of arts and science'. Kalai kalam in Tamil means the' place where one can learn about the arts and science'. Presently in Tamil' kazhakam' is the word to signify the place to learn. Mutha kallim is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Mootha - Mutha Kalignan, a senior person who is well versed in the subject or the elderly scholar. The name ‘Maverannakhr' is the pure Tamil name ‘Ma veeran Nagar' which means the ‘City of the great warrior'. Ma- Great; Veeran - warrior; Nagar--the city.


Itchan Kala [ kala]   is the walled inner   town   of the city of Khiva ,   Uzbekistan . Since 1990, it has been protected as the   World Heritage Site .

A coherent and globally preserved urban ensemble, the inner city of Khiva, Itchen Kala, bears exceptional testimony to the lost civilization of Khorezm. Several monuments of Itchen Kala, such as the Djuma Mosque, constitute remarkable types of architectural ensembles, whereas the   madrasas , of majestic proportions but simple in design, are exceptional examples of a type of Muslim architecture specific to central Asia. The domestic architecture of Khiva is one of the major elements of interest of Itchen Kala by virtue of its design and its construction.


Khiva oasis, which lies south of the Amu Darya river (the Oxus of the ancients), was the final halt for caravans before crossing the desert to Persia. In the 4th century AD, the town was at the heart of Khorezm (Greek Choresmia), an Iranian kingdom whose prosperity was linked with the legendary efficient of its hydraulic techniques, which were capable of transforming the 'black sands' of the region into lush grazing lands, gardens, and orchards. It was first conquered by the Arabs in 712, and then by the Mongols in 1221. In 1379 it fell into the hands of Timur (Tamerlane the Great), staying under Mongol control, until taken by Uzbeks in 1512, when it was the capital of the new state, and from 1643 of a khanate. During the 19th century it was independent, not becoming a Russian protectorate until 1873.

The city, which is rectangular in plan, is divided into two parts: Dichan Kala, the outer town (formerly fortified), and Itchan Kala, the inner town with 10 m high walls. Little has survived that is earlier than the 17th century, apart from the Djuma Mosque, although it was largely rebuilt in 1788-89. Most of the public buildings are grouped round the main east-west axis, commanded at either end by the successive residences of the khans of Khiva. To the north-west, Kunya Ark, the 'ancient fortress', was established in 1686-88 by Arang-Khan; originally a formidable redoubt, it was converted in the early 19th century into a sumptuous palace by Alla-Ulli-Khan. The Tach-Kauli Palace to the north-east, was built in 1830-38, also for Alla-Ulli-Khan. Other exceptional monuments are the Mausoleum of Pahlavan Mahmud (1247-1325) and the Mausoleum of Sayid All-Uddin, which has retained its 14th-century layout intact.



However, the outstanding qualities of Itchan Kala derive not so much from the individual monuments, splendid though many of them are, than from the incomparable urban composition of the city, and from the harmony with which the major constructions of the 19th and 20th centuries were integrated into a traditional structure. For example, south of Kunya Ark are to be found Kalta Minor and the Medresseh of Muhammad-Amin-Khan, while south-east of the Djuma Mosque and the Mausoleum of Pahlavan Mahmud is located the Medresseh of Islam-Khodja (1908-10), with its elegant minaret, at 45 m the highest in Khiva. The Medresseh of Alla-Kuli, built in 1835 in an awkward space near the east gate of the inner town, is a celebrated example of harmonious blending into an ancient urban fabric.[]


The name Khiva is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Kai vai. The word Khiva is the combination of Kai+ vai. If we write as Vai + kai it will be read as Vai kai, the name of a river in Tamil Nadu.


Itchan kala signifies the inner city. The word Kala is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Kalam. Kalam in Tamil means the large or open space or field as in ‘Porkkalam ‘ [ battle field] or ‘Ner kkalam' [paddy field. Hence the term Itchan kala should mean the inner field [town] of the fortress. Kalam in Tamil also means the planet or pot..

The dichan kala is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Theekan kalam -- Thekkan[am] or Thakkan[am] kalam which means the southern land , the earth[ kalam-- planet] . The Itchan kala is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Aa kan[am] kalam [ the hanging planet ] which means the northern space , the sun.

The dichan is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Thekkanam as in Deccan.

The   Deccan Plateau[]   is a large   plateau   in   India   which covers the majority of the southern part of the country. It is between three mountain   ranges and extends over eight Indian states; in particular the states of   Andhra Pradesh [ Indira para theesam ] ,   Karnataka [ Ko Orai Na theee ka am ,   Kerala[ Ka Ra la  ] and   Tamil Nadu   are on this plateau. The name is an anglicised from the   Prakrit   word   dakkhin . That word comes from the   Sanskrit   word   dak?i?a-   meaning 'South' or 'The South'.


The Tamil words with the combination of magical letters Ka+la are----------------- Kala- a proper name ; Kala kala -- a pharase to describe the laugh ; Kaal -- the leg; Kaal -- the foundation ; Kaal-- measurement , one fourth; Kola kola - a pharase to describe the sticky nature of a fluid; Kaalai---morning; Kalai--arts and science; kalam-- the field; Kalam -the time; Kalan- the keeper of the time of the universe, the sun god; Kalan- lord Siva; Kallu-- the Dravidian alcoholic beverage; Kal- the stone ; Kal--- to learn; kalan- mushroom; Kaalan- the god of death ; Kali- goddess , wife of Kalan; kallan-- the thief; Kalli - female thief , the moon goddess; Kali-- a stick or a stump; kali-- to remove or Subtraction ; Kizhi-- to tear; Kili -- the parrot; Kili--fear or panic; Killu--to pinch ; Kollu-- to receive ; kolli--the fire; Kollu -- a kind of grain; Kolu kolu -- a phrase to describe the well grown bubbly body build of a person; Kool-- a drink ; cooly -- daily vages ; Kolam - floor drawing with rice flour ; koalm-- the look ; Kole- the planet; kole-- the stick , the sun ray ; Kalam -- the planet ‘; kalam -- the pot; Kollatam - a dance played with sticks; kol- to kill; Kolai- murder; Kulai-- a bunch; Kolli malai-- name of a mountain ; Kozhi- the hen , the one who welcomes the sun in the early morning ; kollen - the black smith who works with fire and metals; koli- the small glass balls.; Kolambu -horse shoe; Kulambu-- the recipe ; kulam- the pond; kool-- porridge; Kuli-- to take bath; kulir-- cool ; Kullan- the dwarf ; Kali-- to play ; Kali- a type of food ; Kaali -- empty ; Kaali [paiyan]- a mischievous boy ; Kallam --- cunning ‘ kilae -- underneath ; Kaal-- leg ;‘ kaeli -- to tease etc.


Khorasan,[] also written as   Khurasan, is a   historical   region   lying in the northeast of Persia   (Iran) that has been mentioned in various sources in the past. "In   pre-Islamic   and early   Islamic times , the term "Khurassan" frequently had a much wider denotation, covering also parts of   Central Asia   and   Afghanistan ; early Islamic usage often regarded everywhere east of western   Persia , sc. Djibal or what was subsequently termed ' Irak 'Adjami , as being included in a vast and ill-defined region of Khurasan, which might even extend to the   Indus Valley   and   Sind ."   Before Islamization of the region , the inhabitants of Khorasan had mostly practiced   Zoroastrianism   but there were also followers of other religions.


The name "Khorasan" is derived from   Middle Persian   khor   (meaning "sun") and   asan   (or   ayan   literally meaning "to come" or "coming" or "about to come"), hence meaning "land where the sun rises".   The Persian word   Khavar-zamin   meaning "the eastern land", has also been used as an equivalent term.


Khorasan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ko Rasan which means the king of the sky, the sun. Ko[ Ka] in Tamil means the sky and Rasan means the king. The name Ko rasan is the combination of Ko +ra +sa+ an. Sa is the moon or the evening sun. Aasan in Tamil means the teacher or the ruler. Rayan in Tamil means the king.


The Persian word ‘Khor' is the combination of Ka +Orai , where orai means the planet or star and here it means the sun . Since ‘Asan' means ‘to come out ‘the meaning of Khorasan is the ‘morning sun' . ‘Aasan' in Tamil means the' teacher' or the' guide' who is none other than the sun god. Ayan in Tamil means the ruler.




Andijan   or   Andizhan []   ( Uzbek :   Andijon   is the fourth-largest city in   Uzbekistan , and the capital of the   Andijan Province . It is located in the east of the country in the   Fergana Valley , near the border with   Kyrgyzstan   on the   Andijan-Say River . It has a population of 323,900 (1999 census estimate). Arab geographers from the 10th century and later give the name as   Andiyon, Andukan, Andugan,   and   Andigan . The etymology is unknown; the traditional explanation links it to the Turkic tribal name   Andi .


Andijan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Anthi seyon, the evening sun. Aandi in Tamil indicate lord Murugan. Andi is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Andam, the universe. Saya in Tamil means the ‘ moon'[ saya devi] or' dye' and again the moon is symbolically associated with water .


Andijan was an important stop on the   Silk Road , lying roughly mid-way between   Kashgar   and   Khodjend . Destroyed by Genghis Khan , it was rebuilt by his grandson   Kaidu Khan   in the late 13th century, and became the capital of   Ferghana   for the next three centuries. It is perhaps best known as the birthplace of   Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur   (Babur), who founded the   Mughal dynasty   that ruled much of today's   India ,   Pakistan , and   South Asia , born in 1483.


  Archaeologists are active in researching the historical locations such as Cordona, Sarvontepa, Âkkatepa, Koštepa, Ark ichi, Shakhristan. According to A.R. Muhammadžanova, the term "Andijan" is associated with water. In other words, the term Turkic-Mongol origin, had the meaning "settlement near the saya (water).


Corodona is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Karu thanam or koorai thanam; sarvontepa is the Tamil Saravan [an] thebam; Akkatepa is the Tamil Akha thebam; Kostepa is the Tamil Kosa thebam; Shakhristan is the Tamil Sa ka ra thanam.


Fergana valley; [ valley]

The Fergana valley is an intermountain depression in Central Asia, between the mountain systems of the Tien-Shan in the north and the Gissar-Alai in the south. The valley is approximately 300 km long and up to 70 km wide, forming an area of 22,000 km 2 . Its position makes it a separate geographic zone.   The valley owes its fertility to two rivers, the Naryn   and the Kara Darya , which unite in the valley, near   Namangan , to form the   Syr Darya . Numerous other tributaries of these rivers exist in the valley including the   Sokh River . The streams, and their numerous mountain effluents, not only supply water for irrigation, but also bring down vast quantities of sand, which is deposited alongside their courses, more especially alongside the Syr Darya where it cuts its way through the   Khujand - Ajar   ridge, forming there the   Karakchikum . This expanse of   moving sands , covering an area of 750 mi², under the influence of south-west winds, encroaches upon the agricultural districts.

Fergana is the combination of Pa + ra+ ka+an+am, the ‘high land'. ‘Para' in Tamil means high and ‘kanam ‘means the land [also ine second] . Marakanam and Arakonam are related words which end with the suffix' kanam'. Valley is the Tamil ‘vaeli' or ‘vazhi'. The Tien part of ‘Tien shan' means theeyon, in Tamil which means [thee-yoni] the fire god. The name of the river Naryn is the combination of Na+ Ra +Aa +an and Karu Darya is the Tamil Karu thirai, black river. The name Namangan is the combination of Na+ Ma+ankh+ which means ‘good sun'. Syr Darya is the Siru thirai and ‘Sokh' is the Tamil ‘chokka[n ]'.' Chokkuthae ‘ in Tamil means ‘ ‘mesmerising' and so ‘Sokh' means the ‘river which is so beautiful and attractive'.


Karakalpakstan[en.wikipedia.ord/wiki/KarakalPakistan]   ( Karakalpak :   Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikasi ;  Uzbek :   Qoraqalpog‘iston Respublikasi   ???????????? )) is an   autonomous republic   of   Uzbekistan . It occupies the whole northwestern end of Uzbekistan. The capital is   Nukus   (Karakalpak:   No'kis)   The Republic of Karakalpakstan has an area of 160,000 square kilometres (62,000 sq mi). Its territory covers the classical land of   Khwarezm , though in classical   Persian literature   the area was known as "Kat".



Karaikal   ( karaikkal   also   Karikal   or   Karaikkal ) is a major port city of east coast of India and a   municipality   in   Karaikal district   in the   Union Territory   of   Puducherry ,   India . Several explanations are offered for the word 'Karaikal'. The imperial Gazetteer gives it the meaning 'fish pass'. According to   Julien Vinson   the town is said to have known as Karaigiri in Sanskrit. However, the name Karaikal is no doubt a combination of two words 'Karai' and 'Kal'. Both the words ‘Karai and 'Kal' have several meanings, of which the more acceptable ones are 'lime mix' and 'canal' respectively. Hence it has been suggested that the name may mean a canal built of lime mix. However, no trace of such a canal is evident now.

There is a small, fishing village in Karaikal, called Karaikal medu. Keeri kal medu is a village near Trichy.


The name Karaikal is the combination of ka+orai+kal , Ka Orai Kalan means the sun god lord Siva. Ka is the sky ; Orai is the sun; Kalan means the time keeper. Karai in Tamil means the ‘white' lime stone, white that of the sun. ‘Ka'l means the leg or ‘foundation ‘ . There are many Siva temples in around Karaikal. Karu ka orl Karu[ n] kal means the ‘blue metal' . Karu in Tamil means the dark blue color and Kal means the stone. Karukal in Tamil also means ‘early morning.' Karkala -m in Tamil means the ‘stone age'.



Makhachkala  []  “Fort Maghach” is the   capital   city   of the   Republic of Dagestan ,   Russia . It is located on the western shore of the Caspian Sea   and is home to the   Makhachkala Grand Mosque , one of Russia's largest. As of the   2010 Census , the city had a population of 572,076, making it the largest in the   North Caucasus Federal District . The city has an ethnic plurality, with the Avars   and   Laks   as the largest groups.

Makhachkala is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Maka Kala sa[m] , the great and mega kalasm of the unverse , the sun .


Lankaran []   ( Azerbaijani :   L?nk?ran ; also,   Länkäran ,   Lencoran , and   Lenkoran' , Talyshi: Lankon) is a city in   Azerbaijan , on the coast of the   Caspian Sea , near the southern border with   Iran . It has a population of 83,300 (2010 census). It is next to, but independent of   Lankaran rayon . The city forms a distinct first-order division of Azerbaijan.

The old form of the name was "Langarkanan" that in   Persian   means "the place of pulling up the anchor(s)" : "Langar" ( Persian :   anchor) + "kan" ( Persian :   to pull) + "an"( Persian :   suffix of places). However, some sources state that Lankaran is said to come from the Talish words for 'Cane house', which sounds as 'Lan Karan'.   Alternatively, from Median   *Lan (a) karan- , where * karan-   means 'border, region, land' and   Lan   is probably a name of a   Caspian   tribe. Karai in Tamil also means the river bank or border.


La+ankh +Ra +an is the composition of the Tamil name Lankaran or Linga ran, the Siva linga Oraiyan. La ankh Ra an means the sun god who is the bright object[ Ankh-- body] of the andam , the universe.


Pilaf  [] (also known as   pilau ,   peleau ,   polo , and   plov ) is a dish in which   rice   is cooked in a seasoned   broth .   In some cases, the rice may also attain its brown color by being stirred with bits of cooked onion, as well as a large mix of   spices . Depending on the local cuisine, it may also contain   meat   and   vegetables .


Pilaf and similar dishes are common to   Balkan ,   Middle Eastern ,   And Central   and   South Asian ,   East African ,   Latin American , and   Caribbean Indian cuisines.


The English term   pilaf   is borrowed directly from the   Turkish ,   pilav , which in turn comes from (Classical)   Persian   polow   ( ??? ), and ultimately derives from   Sanskrit   pulaka-   "lump of boiled rice".   The English term is further influenced by   Modern Greek   pilafi .   Due to the vast spread of the dish, there exist variations of the name in many languages, including   plov ,   polou ,   palov ,   pilau   etc.


Polow, the Persian name of the dish is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Pulavu. The word ‘pulavu' is the combination of the magical Dravidian basic letters Ba + la+ va where ‘ba' is the earth[ or ocean ] , ‘la' , is the light of the moon and ‘Va' is the sky, the vaan. Hence Pulavu means the light of the sky and earth, the sun or the moon. The boiled white rice , mixed with onions , nuts, dried fruits and sprinkled

spices placed in the center of the plate in a round shape resembles the image of the sun , the light of the sky and earth. Most of the Dravidian snacks, food and vegetables have their names originated from the words related to sun or moon or sky.

Phonetically related name is Pala vu , the name of the --- .The word Vulavu Uu +la + Va in Tamil means ‘to walk around under the moon light.'


The name of the hot rice cake ‘ Idly' is the combination of Ittu+la which means ‘ the boiled rice cake like that of the glistening , rounded , white and hot sun .

If we write the letters of ‘Idly' in reverse order it will be read as laddu or lattu [ la+ ittu - a sweet] , which means like that of the moon in shape [ rounded] and color[ golden] and it is not a hot dish as that of the moon.


Thosai [ Dosa] is the combination of Thee+ sa which means the rice pan cake dish which looks like that of the sa, the chandran .


Samsa is considered to be the most popular product from a dough inUzbekistan and also throughout Central Asia.


Alternative names of Samsa - somsa, samosa, sambosak, sambusa, samoosa, singada, samuza. In Uzbekistan and other some Asian countries samosas are almost always baked and never fried. The dough can be simple bread dough, or layered pastry dough. You can face different types of samsa with various fillings: meat (lamb, beef, etc), pumpkin, greens, potatoes etc. Samsa is baked in a tandoor oven, as well as in gas ovens and on electric plates. Also there are different shapes of samsa: triangle, square, round, braided, half moon forms. It is more common to shape the samsa into a triangle.

Samsa is the corrupted form of the Tamil word ‘ Somasu' , a native sweet of Dravidian household is the combination of sa + ma+sa . That means the sweet like that of the moon. My mother Mrs. Kamactchi Ramasamy used to make ‘Somasu ‘as special dish on festive times which was used to be in half moon in shape. Soman, [god], and the soma drink, ‘Kallu ‘are related to moon.


Shamash[] (Akkadian Šamaš "Sun"), was a native Mesopotamian deity and the sun god in the Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian pantheons. Shamash was the god of justice in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu. Akkadian šamaš is cognate to Syriac semša or šimšu Hebrew šemeš and Arabic šams .


Arisi, the Tamil word for rice has it's origin from Orai + sa which means the product or the gift of the sun and the moon. The Greek word for rice ‘Oraiza' is the pure and un corrupted Tamil word Orasi sa and the present day, Arisi is the corrupted form of the original Tamil word Orai sa .


The boiled rice is called as ‘Sorru ‘in Tamil which is the combination of Sa+ ra , the moon and the sun. The ‘satham' is also a Tamil word to denote boiled rice ‘sorru' and it is the combination of sa +tha +am . ‘Sarru' in Tamil means juice and it is the combination of sa+ ra.

The name' Palam' [ pazham] in Tamil means the fruit which is the combination of Ba+ la which means the moon[la] of the earth[ earth] , hanging from the tree , hanging as that of the moon in the sky. Balan is the sun god, Murugan who was worshipped in Babylon as the Baal god. Baal god is the Palani of Dravidian dun god Murugan. The name Babylon is the combination of Ba + Ba+ la+ an which is nothing but the name Boo Balan which means ‘ Balan -the fire god or the sun god. Boo or poo in Tamil is the flower or the fire.

Rasam, the tamarind soup of Tamil Nadu is the combination of Ra+ sa which means the essence of the sun and the moon, the male and female juice. Rasa is a pure Tamil word. ‘Aa- Rasu ‘means the sun at a distant in the sky and E- Rasu means the snake in the nearby earth.


The word ‘More' in Tamil means the white diluted curd , and it is the combination of Ma+ Orai . Orai means the white sun.


‘Thayir ‘In Tamil means the curd and the word Thayir is the combination of Thee + Orai. Tha in Tamil means chill or cool and thee means the hot.


Appalam , is the combination of Aa+ ba+ la +am which means the dish looking like that of Aa Balan , the palam at a distance , the sun. The name of the Greek god Apolla[ n] is very much a Dravidian name.


Vadai, a Dravidian dish , is the combination of Vaa+ thee , the fire of the sky. Since the Vadai has a hole in its center it signify the moon [female] rather than the sun [male] . ‘Veda ‘ is a related pure Dravidian word .


Payasam is a hot watery sweet made up of vermicelli in milk mixed with , nuts and dried fruits and it is the combination of Ba +Aa + sa+am and the original word is Pal Aakasam , the milky way of the sky.


In all Dravidian weddings it is a custom or ritual to serve appalam and Vadai during the feast , the fertility symbols of male and female form and they are invariably served along with ‘ payasam ‘.


‘Athirasam' is a round sized sweet and it is the combination of Aathee+ Ra+ sa+ am.


Appam is another snack made of rice, a pan cake, white hot rounded . Appan means the father, the sun.

Kolumbu or Kozhumbu the red colored hot vegetable gravi is the combination of ka + la+ am+ ba where ‘Ko ‘ is the hot sky and la is the red hot sun and Ba is the water or the gravi .


Sappathi is a type of North Indian bread made up of wheat. The name Sappathi is the combination of sa+ba + Aa+ thee, the sun or the moon.


Roti, Indian white bread is purely a Tamil word. Roti is the combionation of Ra +thee, the sun. Raati [cow dung cake] is a related word. ‘Suvaroti ‘means the posters stuck or pasted on the walls. The Naan or Thanthoori roti is also baked by sticking them on the oven side walls. Hence the word roti would have originated from the word - Ottti, which means to stick, Thanthoori is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Thee+anda+Orai. Anda means big vessel in Tamil and thee anda iiis the oven.


The name of a wheat food, Poori, is the combination of Ba +Ori.


Parota, a food, made up of Maida flour is the combination of ba+Ra+thee.


Kallu, the Dravidian alcoholic hot drink which is white in color is the combination of Ka+la. Ka means hot and la means white.


Avarai is the combination of Aa+ orai.


‘ Kai' in Tamil means the unripe fruit and it is the combination of Ka+ ya which means the unripe fruit which is sour or hot as that of the sky and dark in color as that of the sky.


The red colored ‘Kovai Palam ‘[pazham] is the combination of Ko+ vaa which means the fruit which is red in color as that of the red sky.


Vaazhai Pazham in Tamil is the banana and it is the combination of Vaa+la , the fruit hanging from the tree , hanging that of the stars in the sky .

The Tamil name Mangai --Mango is the combination of Ma+ankh+ka . The size of the fruit is that of Ma Ankha , the sun. Mankai is the woman who has the Ma ankam, the breast.

The Tamil word Kadal for Ocean is the combination of Ka+ ta+ la which means ‘the glistening water reflecting the color of the sky.


Kadalai [ ground nut] is the combination of Ka+ ta +la which looks like the waves [ ground nut within the shell] of the ocean ,the Kadal .


Solam [Sorghum/ corn] is the combination of sa+la. Makka solam is the combination of Ma+ka+sa+la. The Tamil word ‘maka' is the English word ‘mega'. Maakan in Tamil means the sun god who has a big eye.


The name, ‘karumbu-‘- sugarcane is the combination of ka+Ra+ Ambu which mean ‘the dark colored arrow', of the Eros.


The name ‘Kambu' is the combination of Ka+ ambu, the one which looks like the sun ray , the Ambu or the arrow.


The name ‘Varaku' is the combination of Vaa+ Ra ka.


In India, finger millet (locally called by various name including ragi and nachani ) is mostly grown and consumed in Karnataka, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Odisha, Maharashtra --Ma ka Ra thee Ra am] , Garhwal and Kumaon (Uttarakhand) and Goa [ ko+Aa] .Ragi flour is made into flatbreads, including thin, leavened dosa and thicker, unleavened roti. Ragi grain is malted and the grains are ground. This ground flour is consumed mixed with milk, boiled water or yoghurt.

India is a major cultivator of finger millet with a total cultivated area of 15870 km 2 . The state of Karnataka is the leading producer of finger millet, known as Ragi in the region, accounting for 58% of India's Ragi production.


In Tamilnadu, it is called kezhvaragu or just keppai. It is dried, powdered and boiled to form a thick mass that is allowed to cool. This is the famed 'kali' or 'keppai kali'. This is made into large balls to quantify the intake. It is taken with sambar or thick spicy soups made from tamarind extracts. For children, it is also given with milk and sugar. It is also made in the form of pancakes with onions and tomatoes chopped.

Ragi is the combination of Ra+ ka. Kezh varagu is the combi9nation of Ka +la +va+ra+ka, the Varagu like that of the kole, the planet.


The name of the snack Rava--saemiya is the combination of Ra+vaa.


The name Kasa kasa-- poppy seeds--khaskas - posta is the combination of Ka+sa+ka+sa.


Orange is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Na rengai which is the combination of Na+Ra +ankh+ka. The fruit is like that of the body [ankha] of the sun[ Ra] in the sky[ Ka]. Na in Taml means, Nal, good.


The name Milakai, red chilli is the combination of Ma+la+ka. The red chilli, Milakai has the color of the Mala, the red sun. Milaku, pepper is a related word.


Kungamapoo, the saffron - the kesar is the combination of Ko+ ankh+ma +poo. Poo[ ba] is the star of the sky and Ma ankh is the sun and so Kungumapoo is the one which looks like that of the sun in color.


The name Masala -- spice mixture is the combination of Ma+sa+la.

Central Asia is considered to be the homelang of jeera [ sa+ra]. .Uzbek jeera is a separate subspecies.



Samba rice, which is the traditional rice in southern India, comes in many varieties. The tiny-grained seeraga samba gets its name from its resemblance to cumin, which is known as seeragam or seera in Tamil.

The cumin seed is called as Seera in both Tamil as well as Uzbeck.


Here are the lists of Tamil words of Kinships.

Dravidian Magical letters and the names of kinships.


Appan -- Aa + ba +An, The Aathee of the universe and the earth.


Periya Appan -- Peru Orai Appan.


Chitta Appan --- Siru orai -- Chithirai Appan.

Annai---- Aa -An -An, the Aathee of the andam.


Amma---------- Aa +Maa, the Maa athee.


Than thai ------------ Thee +an + +thee, the theeyan, thee anda thee , the sun.

Thai--------------------Thee + aye, the primordial fire.


Annan --------------An +an+an.


Thangai-------- Thee +ankh+Aa, born from the primordial fire.

Thambi----- -Thee +ambu, thee +an+ba.


Makan------ -Ma+Kan or Ma +ka+An, the sun.


Makal ----- Ma +ka +li, the moon.


Siruvan----------------- Sa+Ra+vaa+an -


Sirumi-------------------Sa+Ra+Ma. Mi is the suffix to denote girls.


Paiyan--- Ba+Aa+an. Pais in Greek.


Vidalai-------- Adoloecence, vai+thee +la .


Valiban--------------Vaa+la+ba+an, the adolescent.



Maman---- Ma +Amman [Ma +an +ma+an], Ma Andathin Maan, the sun, the sun of the universe.


Maa Mee -- The moon goddess.


Athaan -- Aa + thee+ an -- Aathiyan or Aten.


Athai -- Aa+ thee.


Thaatha--- Thee+Aa+ thee.


Patti--------------ba+ Aa +thee.


Aayee ---- -Aa+athee.


Mankai -- Ma +ankh+Aa.


Maravan ---Ma+Ra+va+an.


Aan ---------------- Aa+an. Aa is the sky the Aakasam.


Pen ------- ba+an, ba is the earth or water.


Manithan ---- Mani + thee+ an.

Maithunan -------Ma +Aa+thee+an+an [an-- the suffix] .


Maithuni----- --Ma+Aa +thee+an [ni -- suffix].


Murai paiyan--------------Ma +Orai+ba+Aa+an. ‘Pais' in Greek means ‘young boy'.' Paiyan ‘means boy in Tamil who is none other than Sun who is eternally youth.


Murai Pen ---Ma +orai +ba+an -- the moon


Paeran -- ba +Ra+an.


Paeyartheee-----ba+Orai +thee.


Paraman-- ba+Ra+Ma+an.


Nathee------ Naa+ thee, thee naakku.


Kolunthan ----- Ka +la+an+ thee+an, brother in law.


Machaan---- Ma + Aa+sa+an .


Machini ------ Ma+Aaa+ sa+an, ni is the suffix to indicate females.

Oruvan------------Orai+Aa+an .


Oruthee-----------Orai +thee.


Sakotharan---------Sa+ka+thee+ra+an [ suffix] .

Sakothari---------sa+ko+thee+Ra+i [ i-- suffix] . Aa+Ra= Orai or Aravu.


Kathalan----- ka+thee +la+an


Kathali-------------Ka+tha +la , thee is the sun and tha is the moon.


Theetu ---- Thee+ ittu, the menstrual bleeding , Done by the Greek Tamilan Deucalion .


Kalyanam; Ka+la+Aa+am , Marriage .
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