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Laksatheepathi----la+ka+sa---- Athee pathi. The English word ‘Lakh' has the similar meaning with the Tamil word ‘ Laksam' .


Kodeeswaran ---Ka+thee+Eswaran, the millioner.



The list of the names of the body parts in Tamil and the Dravidian magical letters.


Thalai-- Thee +la or Latha , the head is like the sun or the moon.


Mayir; Hair, Ma+ Aa+ Ra , the sun ray. ‘Uyirai kodutha Aandavanukku Mayirai kodu ‘ , the votive offering of scalp hair .


Kan-------- Ka+an - the eye, the eye of the sky , the sun


Kathu ----The ear--- Ka +thee, The word kathu originated form the word , kaathhu, the air -- hearing from the air .


Mooku-- the nose, Ma+ka .

Kannam--- Cheek, -Kan nam -the area near the kan , the eye.-


Mukam -- Ma+ka+am, the face like the sun. Here the ka is the sun.


Naakku ---the tongue, Naa+akhu , Nakku means the ‘thee', the fire. Akhu Na or Akhu ni is the Agni which means ‘make fire' Aakhu means to make or produce. Hence Agni and yagnam are pure Tamil words.


Annam --, the palate, annam means white, like the white sky .


Vaayee----- Vaa+Aa [ Aa - vanam] , like that of the sky having many stars , the teeth and the red tounge , the sun flames. Aavanam -- doccument is a related word.


Pal ----- Ba+la -, white that of the sun Bala .


Vathanam -, the lip Va+thee+an+am , red in color that of the thee, the fire.



Mandai; the other name for head, Ma+andai , like that of the bg andam in shape, the universe.


Kabalam; the skull, Ka+ba+la+am . Gopalan , Balan , Baa'l , Kabba , Kabilan , Palam [ Pazham] , Bali [ sacrifice] Koppalam[ eruptions], Kappal [ ship] etc are the words related to it.


Udal; Mei, the body; Originated from the word ‘Udu', the shining planet .



Thondai---The throat; Thee +andai, the place where hot air is coming out or that of the red sky .


-Kazhuthu-- the neck --- -Ka++la+thee, the place for air flow.


Maaru; the chest, Ma+Orai , keeping the sun god with one's chest, the heart.


Karam; the hand, Ka+Ra+m , the sun ray


Manikattu; The wrist, where the all the small bones are tied together, as the small stars are positioned ogether.


Kaal -----the leg, Ka+la-, like the kaalan, the sun who walks in the sky.


Viral ------the finger; Vai+Ra+la , the finger which is adorned with rings of shining stones .


Vayiru--- the stomache; -- Vai+ Aa+ Ra. The snake [ gastrointestinal system] inside the body. The red tongue is usually considered as the Naakku, the Naga the snake.

Kal eral -- the liver. Aralai kal means the dark blue sand [ soft stone] , liver being dark blue in colour with gall stones.


Aratha'am, Blood; Aratham Aa+ Ra+thee+am, like that of the red sun.


Kuruthi , the blood ; Ka+Ra+thee , like that of the red fire .


Iruthayam, the heart; Orai theeyam , the dwelling place of the sun god.

Kunju------------------ka+an+sa, the penis of the child. Infact the new born baby is called as Kunju. The new born hens are called as' Kunju'.


Sunni [ sa+an ] is the penis of the adult. ‘Sunni Thaanam' had become the ‘sunni thaanam' - sacred place of the temple. The English word ‘sun' also has the composition of sa+an, the sun of the andam, the universe.

Pool [ ba+la] , Poolan -- Poolandi or Palandi ; ‘ Pool' is the penis of the adolescent boy who is called as ‘Pooluthy', or Poolan the one who does mastrubation . The penis from which the semen comes out is called as ‘pool'. ‘Pal' in Tamil means the breast milk. ‘Poolandi' is the Bala Aandi, the sungod.


Pen Puzhai [ basic composition is ba +la] is the secreting vagina of the woman.


Puzha means the river in Malayalam. The English word' Pool' is related to the word Puzha. The word ‘Phallus' is the corrupted form of the Tamil name ‘Balan'. The Tamil suffix ‘an' had become ‘us' in Greek word.


The Tamil words Pal[ the milk] , Pool [ semen of the penis] ,pallu [ the tooth], Puzha[ the river] , Puzhai [ the vagina] , Pazham [ the fruit] and the Greek word Phallus , all had their origin from the Tamil word [ basic composition [ba+la ] , Bala or Balan ,the sungod , the Baal of Babylonia. In the sky Baal is the white sun and in the earth Baal is the white water milk or semen or the penis itself.

“Pundai” [ba+andam] means the vagina. Ba or Pooma is the earth. Pandam [ goods] , panda akam[ place for goods] Pandaka arai [the godown] are related to the word Pundai or the earth from which all the wealth of the world came. The Greek Pandora box is the Tamil Pundaka arai which is the womb or the uterus.


Vidhai --the seed, the testis-------- Vai +thee, the fire of the earth, , the lingam of the Siva -Vaitheeswaran .


Patham - pa+thee+am , the foot of the sun god in the earth. Pathai is the related word, the way of the sun.


Nurai eral , the lungs ; Nurai eral ‘ means the foamy and black sand in color . Liver has the pink color.


Mulai, the Breast -- Ma+la , Mulai thaanam -- Moolasthanam is the related word.


Karuppai - Ka +Ra+ ba. Karu +pai, the bag of the foetus.


Karuppam-- pregnancy -- The Karu + Appam where the karu is the foetus and the appam is the placeta .


Anda kosam; Anda + KO+sa+am , the star of the sky, hanging organ.


Kudal [colon] is actually Koodal , the place where the digested food gets accumulated.


Thoppai; Thole +pai -- the skin bag.



A caravan[] : is a group of people traveling together, often on a trade expedition. Caravans were used mainly in desert areas and throughout the Silk Road, where traveling in groups aided in defense against bandits as well as helping to improve economies of scale in trade.



A caravanserai , or khan , or fondouk , also Han (in Turkish), also known as caravansary , caravansera , or caravansara in English or Sarai in Indian subcontinent (Persian: karvansara or karvansarai , Turkish: kervansaray ) was a roadside inn where travelers could rest and recover from the day's journey. Caravanserais supported the flow of commerce, information, and people across the network of trade routes covering Asia, North Africa, and southeastern Europe, especially along the Silk Road.


The word is also rendered as caravansara or caravansary . The Persian word karvansara is a compound word combining '' karvan (caravan) with sara (palace, building with enclosed courts), to which the Persian suffix -yi is added. Here "caravan" means a group of traders, pilgrims, or other travelers, engaged in long distance travel. There is a separate article for the word Sarai itself.

The caravanserai was also known as a khan in Persian language han in Turkish, funduq in Arabic (from the Greek, pandocheion , an inn), and fundaco in Venice.


The name Caravan is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Ko Aravan and the word is the combination of Ka+Ra+va+an. Ko Aravan means the king snake or King Cobra or Rasa Nagam . it might mean that 2000 years old ,the tortuous 6500 kilometers length of the Great Silk road [ Ko Aravan of the earth] had the look of a great snake ‘ Ko Aravan' . Ko Aravan of the sky is also the sun god in Tamil Nadu, lord Siva. The Chinese Dragon is the combination of The+Ra+ka+an, the sun god. Thee+ Ra+ka= Turk.


Well !the real meaning of' ko Aravan ‘ or ‘Caravan' is ‘Travel like the Great Traveler, the sun' from east to west slowly as the sun does crossing the mountains , rivers ,plains and deserts . The present form of the name Ko Aravan is ‘Karan'.


The related Tamil word ‘kuravan' means the gypsy community of Tamil Nadu who are the real wanderers selling semi precious stones and honey, having no permanent shelter and they are supposed to be hailing from the mountainous hilly areas. These people are called as Mala Kuravan since they are supposed to hail from the mountainous hilly areas[ kurunchi high lands] , the abode of the sun god and they are the wanderers of the earth as the wanderer of the sky , the sun . Hence ‘Kuravan' or ‘caravan' simply means the' sun ‘. The Greek word ‘ Kuros' is the Tamil' Koran' [ short form of Ko Aravan ] also means , the sun , the eternally youthful boy of the universe and he is the Baal god of Babylonia and the ‘Bala ‘ Murugan of Dravidian people. The sacred text Koran of Muslims was delivered by the single god , sun , the Ko Aran -- the karan to the prophet Mohamed. Kurungu in Tamil means the monkey and the word Kurungu is the combination of Ka+ra+Ankh+Aa which means the monkey had its origin from the sun , similar to the Dravidians . The Dravidians believe that their ancestors had descended from the sun. The magical Dravidian letter ‘Ra' was learnt by the Dravidians from the cry of the monkey, ‘Kor kor'. ‘Anu man' , the the Hindu monky god is nothing but the miniature[ anu] form of the Kurangan ,sun god , lord Siva. Because of that reason only, Anu man was considered to be a great worshipper of the sun god, Raman. The scarabs, the flying beetles are worshipped as the Sun god in ancient Egypt Khepri [Ko peru Orai] because they only taught the Dravidian, the letter ‘Ra' apart from the monkeys by their song-- Rae ankaram in Tamil, in praise of the sun god .

Caravanserai is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Ko Aravan Sirai. The Persian word ‘Sara' means ‘ building with enclosed courts ‘ and ‘Sirai ‘ in Tamil ‘ means, the prison ‘ , the enclosed room of a court. ‘Sarai' in Tamil means, a water snake and it is the combination of Sa+Ra. ‘Sa' is the moon and Ra is the sun. The word ‘Sirai ‘[ prison] is the combination of sa+orai which means the resting place [imprisoned ]of the red sun or the setting sun in the west. Hence Caravan sarai means the resting place of the sun in the west . ‘Saeri ‘ [ chery] in Tamil means a dwelling place well outside the city. ‘Seru' in Tamil means' to reach ‘or' to arrive' or ‘to unite'. ‘Seru'm idum' means the resting place. The travelers used to move with their camels, in the desert each one following the other in a line , as that of the ants and that movement is expressed by the Tamil phrase , ‘ sarai [ each one following other ] sarai yaka' --“Sarai saraiyaka people are going ”. saraai or Kuppayam [ Ko +ba+aa+am] in Tamil means , the cloth , had it's root from the skin [ cloth] of the Sarai , the snake . The word ‘Sirai ‘[ prison] is the combination of sa+orai which means the resting place [imprisoned ]of the red sun or the setting sun in the west.

The word ‘sathiram' in Tamil , sa +theeram is the equivalent word for Serai.


The Greek word Pandacheion is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Panda kayam. Panda in Tamil means the goods, kayam means the place and the Greek name Pandora is the corrupted form of the Tamil name ‘Panda Orai' or Pandaka arai. The word ‘Panda ‘is the combination of B[p]a+andam. The name of the ancient sea port ' Puduke' known to the Romans , the Pondichery town , of Tamil Nadu is the corrupted form of the Tamil Pandaka seri or Pondi chery or the Greek Pandacheion . The opposite word for Panda kayam is Munda kaayam, Ma anda Kayam, the name of a place in Kerala state.





Th e   Kara-Khitan   or   Qara-Khitai Khanate   also known as   Western Liao ( simplified Chinese :   traditional Chinese :    pinyin :   Xi Liáo ) (1124-1218) was a sinicized   Khitan   empire in   Central Asia . The dynasty was founded by   Yelü Dashi , who led the remnants of the   Liao Dynasty   to Central Asia after fleeing from the Jurchen   conquest of their homeland in North and Northeast of modern-day China. The empire was usurped by the   Naimans under   Kuchlug   in 1211; traditional Chinese, Persian and Arab sources considered the usurpation to be the end of the Kara-Khitan rule.   The empire was later   taken   by the   Mongol Empire   in 1218.


The   Kara-Khitan   or   Qara-Khitai Khanat;Kara Khitan   ( Hala Qidan ) was the name used by the Khitans to refer to themselves. The phrase is often translated as the   Black Khitans   in Turkish, but its original meaning is unclear today.   On the same line, "Kara-Khitan" literally means in Mongolian "Khar (???) Kidan(?????),


Kara Khitan is the Tamil Ka Orai Ko Athan [Aten].

The Khitans ruled from their capital at Balasagun (in today's   Kyrgyzstan ). They directly controlled the central region of the empire. The rest of their empire consisted of highly-autonomous vassalized states, primarily   Khwarezm , the   Karluks , the   Kara-Khoja Kingdom   of the   Uyghurs , the   Qanglï   and the Western, Eastern and Fergana   Kara-Khanids . The late-arriving   Naimans   also became vassals, before usurping the empire under   Kuchlug .


Kyrgyzstan is the Tamil Karaka [planet] Tanam or the Kiraka thanam. Khwarezm is the Ko Orai sem ; Karluk is the Tamil kara Lokan ; kara khoja is the Tamil ka orai Ka Aasaan ; Kara Khanids is the Tamil Ka orai Ko Nathan .


The Khitan rulers adopted many administrative elements from the Liao Dynasty, including the use of   Confucian   administration and imperial trappings. The empire also adopted the title of   Gurkhan   (universal Khan).

Gurkhan is the Tamil Ko orai Khan or kon .There is an industrial town near New Delhi by name Gurkhon.



Balasagun[]   ( Turkish :   Balagasun   - Balassagun ,   Balasaghun ,   Karabalsagun ;   pinyin :   balàshagun : was an ancient Soghdian  city in modern-day Kyrgyzstan , located in the   Chuy Valley  between  Bishkek   and   Issyk-Kul Lake .


Balasagun was founded by   Soghdians , a people of   Iranian   origin and the   Soghdian language   was still in use in this town till the 11th century.


It was the capital of the   Kara-Khanid Khanate   from the 10th Century until it was taken by the   Kara-Khitan Khanate   in the twelfth century. It was then captured by the Mongols in 1218. The Mongols called it   Gobalik   ("pretty city"). It should not be confused with the city of Karabalghasun   in   Mongolia   which was the capital of the Uyghur Khaganate .


Kara Balaga sun is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Karu [Ko Orai] Balakan seyon , lord Murugan . Gobalik is the corrupted form of the Tamil word ka balika which is the combination of Ka+ba+la+ka. Soghdia is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Sokka Theeton.



Kazakhstan  []  Kazakh :    Qazaqstan , pronounced   [q?z?qst?´n] ;   Russian :   [k?z?x'stan] ), officially the   Republic of Kazakhstan , is a country in   Central Asia , with its smaller part west of the   Ural River   in Eastern Europe .   Kazakhstan is the world's largest   landlocked country   by land area and the   ninth largest   country in the world


While the word "Kazakh" is generally used to refer to   people of ethnic Kazakh descent , including those living in China, Russia, Turkey, Uzbekistan and other neighboring countries, the term "Kazakhstani"was coined to describe all citizens of Kazakhstan, including non-Kazakhs.   The   ethnonym   "Kazakh" is derived from an   ancient Turkic   word meaning "independent; a free spirit", reflecting the Kazakhs'   nomadic horseback   culture. The Persian   suffix " -stan " (see   Indo-Iranian languages ) means "land" or "place of", so   Kazakhstan   means "land of the Kazakhs".


Kazakhstan has been inhabited since the   Neolithic Age : the region's climate and terrain are best suited for nomads practicing pastoralism . Archaeologists believe that humans first   domesticated the horse   in the region's vast steppes.


Central Asia proper was originally inhabited by   Indo-Iranians . The best known of those groups was the nomadic   Scythians .   The Turkic people   began encroaching on the Iranians starting at least in the 5th century AD, possibly earlier. They became the dominant ethnic group of Central Asia. While ancient cities   Taraz   (Aulie-Ata) and   Hazrat-e Turkestan   had long served as important way-stations along the   Silk Road   connecting East and West, real political consolidation only began with the Mongol invasion of the early 13th century. Under the   Mongol Empire , administrative districts were established, and these eventually came under the rule of the emergent   Kazakh Khanate   (Kazakhstan).

The name Kazakastan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Kaza Kaza thanam . Kasa kasa in Tamil means the poppy. The southern part of Kakakastan is well known for poppy cultivation. Hence the name Kazakastan means the land where poppy plant is cultivated. Thanam is a pure Tamil word. The English word Horse is the combination of ka+Ra+sa. The name Sythia is the combination of sa+thee+Aa,. The name Turk is the combination of Thee+ Ra +ka. The name Taraz is the Tamil name ‘Theerasam' or' Thee Rasiyam' or' Thee Rajiyam'. ‘Khanate ‘means Athi Kon or Athee kon, or Kon Athee or Ko Nathan, the king of the universe.


Etymology of the word Horse;

From Middle English horse, hors, from Old English hors   ( “ horse ” ) , from Proto-Germanic *hrussa  ( “ horse ” ) , from Proto-Indo-European *?r?sos  ( “ horse ” ) , from Proto-Indo-European *?ers-  ( “ to run ” ) .


The English name ‘hors', and the proto Germanic ‘hrussa' and the proto Indo European word ‘Kers' all are phonetically similar to the Egyptian word Horus , the sun god. The Egyptian word Horus is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Ko- Orai, Ko Oran or Karan. The Dravidian suffix ‘an' had become the ‘os' in Egyptian language. The Horus is pulled by the sky horses [poi kal kuthirai - poi kalan], the sun rays. Pari in Tamil also means the horse of the ground and parisal is the horse or the ship over the river. Pari is the English word ‘Ferry'.


‘Saeval' in Tamil is the cock and it is the combination of Sa+va or Sai +va or Siva. The cock is the worshipper of lord Murugan, son of lord Siva and chanting His name ‘kokarako Kokarako'. Kokarako means the lord Ra, the sun god.


The word   Astana   in Kazakh literally means   Capital   but the word itself originates from Persian   Astane   ( Persian : means "sublime threshold", "royal Porte" implying a royal capital city or a holy shrine town, (from the   Persian   verb Istadan- ‘stand' (in respect)), and literally means "threshold" (royal or sacred, where people stand in respect or awe) implying where the court is seated (the capital city) or the body of a sacred person is interred (a shrine town). The city of Turkestan   in Kazakhstan that hosts the body of the saint   Ahmad Yasavi   is also called the "astana" as is the city of  Mashhadin ; Iran is the burial place of the 8th Shiite   Imam   Reza . In fact, long before becoming the new capital of Kazakhstan, the city was "an astana", a burial ground of a saint, hence the old name of the city, Ak Mola "white mausoleum".

The name Astana is the corrupted form of the Tamil word ‘Asthi yanam ‘ [ Ma yanam ] . The word Asthi is the combination Aa+sa+thee, the resting place [burial place-Ma Yanam] of the Aa thee. Asthi simply means the ashes. Hence Astana means the burial place . ‘Ak mola ‘is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Aka Mulam. Aka mulam is the combination of Aa+ka+ Ma+la +am. Aa ka means the sky [ Aa+ ka +yam] and mulam -- moolam , means the ‘ place of origin' or the root . The saint or the lord who dwells in the land of Asthi or Asthee , the ashes or the burial ground is none other than lord Siva and one of his names is ‘ Athee mulam ‘.


[H] Asthina puram is related name of a place.


Almaty  [] ( Kazakh : Almati ,   pronounced  [?lm?t?] ), formerly known as Alma-Ata is the former capital of   Kazakhstan   and the nation's largest city, with a population of 1,472,866 (at 1 December 2012).   This represents approximately 9% of the country's population.


The name   Almaty   has its roots in medieval settlement   Almatu that existed near the present-day city.


There is a theory, which is disputed, that the city derives its name from the   Kazakh   word for 'apple' (????), and thus is often translated as "full of apples;"   Alma   is also 'apple' in other Turkic languages, as well as in   Hungarian   and   Mongolian . The Russian version of its name - Alma-Ata, used during the   Soviet era   - was often perceived by as a combination of two Kazakh words, meaning Father of Apples.


There is great   genetic diversity   among the   wild apples   in the region surrounding Almaty; the region is thought to be the ancestral home of the apple, and the wild   Malus sieversii   is considered a likely candidate for the ancestor of the modern   domestic apple , which could explain the "Alma Ata" name.


Almaty is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Aa+la+ma+thee as the red apple looks that of the red sun. Aa is the primordial; la means glistening ; Ma means the big; thee is the fire or the sun. Dravidian had the habit of naming the fruits that hang from the trees with the sun and the stars that hang from the sky. Alma Ata is the Tamil Alma -Athee.


Atyrau   is at the northern end of the   Caspian sea   in   Kazakhstan .Atyrau is an important railway station, and has has daily, or bi-daily, connections with many Kazakh cities, except for the north west (including Astana ). International rail connections include   Tashkent / Saratov , Moscow / Dushanbe   and   Astrakhan . There are also daily international buses to   Astrakhan .   Aktau   is serviced daily by a 20 hour train. Atyrau is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Athee Aravu , the primordial snake or the primordial fire of the sky , the sun . The name Atyrau is the combination of A+thee+Ra+va.



Karaganda[]   (also spelled   Karagandy ) is city and administrative center of   Karaganda oblast (region) of Kazakhstan. Karaganda is situated at the center of important Karaganda coal basin (the word “karaganda” from Kazakh language means “black city”). Karaganda is the second largest city of Kazakhstan.

The name "Karagandy" is derived from a " caragana " bushes ( Caragana arborescens , Caragana frutex) which are abundant in the area. The original site of Karaganda is now labeled on   city maps   as the "Old Town," but almost nothing remains on that site. In exploiting the rich coal deposits, the Soviets undermined the entire city, and the town had to be abandoned completely and moved several miles to the south.

Karaganda is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Karu Kandam [Kara kand] which means the black land, because of the presence of coal there. It could be Kari kandam as kari in Tamil means the black coal- lignite.

Mary[]   is the capital city of   Mary Province   in   Turkmenistan . Former names include   Merv ,   Meru   and   Margiana . The city is an   oasis   in the  Karakum Desert , located on the Murghab  River. In   Kerait   tradition,   Mary, mother of Jesus , was buried here. The city also has an   airport .


The ancient city of   Merv   was an oasis city on the   Silk Road . It was occupied by   Imperial Russia   in 1884, triggering the Panjdeh Incident   between Afghan forces and the   Imperial Russian Army . The modern settlement was founded later that year as a Russian military and administrative post.


Mary is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Ma Orai. Mari in Tamil meas the sheep , which was the favorite sacrificial animal to lord Ma orai , the sun god. Aadu, the goat is the combination of Aa+udu , Athee udu , the sun . Maa udu is the related word. Merv could be the corrupted form of the Tamil word Marava or Maravan, great warrior. The name of the river Murgash is the combination of Ma+ra+ka+sa or Murukasan or Muruka Esan, lord Murugan. Marigiana is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Marakanam, the place of Maran.



Khara Khoto [ koto] ;

Khara-hot-- Kara Khoto was the oldest city in Gobi Desert, which situated on the east bank of Ezen (Lord in Mongolian) River (the Chinese call Hei He, or Black River) and in the middle of the Gobi Gurvansaikhan mountain (lowest part of the Altai Mountains) and the Alasha Gobi (now in China). The lost city was a remote land in several hundred miles far from the Tumen Gazruin Tsagaan Kherem (Great Wall in correct English) in the north. The Great Wall chained in the frontiers of Alasha Desert, which were the natural border of Mongols and Chinese.


In the Mongolian legend of Khara-khoto, "the black & dead city", Khara Baatar (black hero with black magic words) Janjin ruled this city with his brave warriors.

Khara khoto is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Karu [n] kottai or Karu n kottam. The word Karu means black and Kottai means the fort. Hence Khara Khoto means the fortress of the black hero. ‘Ezen' in Tamil means the lord as in Mongolian language. Kara Bator is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Karu -- Ka orai Butharan. Butharan means the black hero, the sun [tharan] of the earth[ba] . ‘Raja bather' is a proper name in Tamil nadu.


. The ancient Hawaiian site of love and fertility is the Phallic rock [ kaule o Nanahoa], Molokai, in Pala'au state park. Kaule o Nanahoa means, the penis of Nanahoa.

Molakai is the corrupted form of the Tamil name ‘Moola kal' or ‘Moola kole' [ The Kaule ] .Palaau is the Tamil Bala or pala and Nanahoa is the Tamil ‘Konaan' , lord siva , Kaule is the Siva Linkha .


Kharkhorin Rock , also   Kharkarin Rock [ Rock] or   Phallic Rock , is a large statue of a   penis   raised on a platform on the   steppe , located near Erdene Zuu Monastery   (part of the World Heritage Site entitled  Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape ) in   Kharkhorin ,   Övörkhangai Province of   Mongolia .


The phallic rock statue has dual functions; primarily it is a reminder to the monks to remain   celibate , but it is also a symbol of fertility and human life.   A 60-centimetre (24 in) long stone statue is located near Kharkhorin.


Kharkhrin Rock is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Karan Ko Aran, lord Siva , the phallic god. Eredene Zuu is phonetically similar to the Tamil name, ‘Orai theenan Siva' .



The main sources of income to Kharkhorin are tourism and agriculture. Water from the Orkhon River serves to irrigate the crops on the large plain east of the town. The   Kharkhorin Airport   has one unpaved runway and is served by regular flights from and to   Ulan Bator .

Orkhon River is the corrupted form of the Tamil name ‘Orai kon', ‘the king of all Orai'. Ulaan Bator is the corrupted form of the Tamil name, Alan or Alavan Butharan.


The   Khangai mountains  [ e./ Mountains] are a   mountain range   in central   Mongolia , some 400 kilometres west of Ulaanbaatar .


Khangai   has become a generally used term by Mongolians to describe the entire lush forest-steppe area to the north as opposed to the southern desert, which is called   Govi   ( Gobi ). The intermediary steppe area is called   Kheer   or   Tal . The word Khangai is composed of the verb "khanga-" which means "provide, supply with necessities" and the Mongolian nominalizing suffix "-ai". The word Khan (King) is also a possible root, probably even related to the verb "khanga-". Therefore Khangai is usually interpreted as   provident lord ,   munificent king ,   generous gracious lord   or   bountiful king . The ancient name denotes the sacredness of the mountain and the special place it holds in the hearts of those who depend on it. A similar Mongolian word for sacred mountains is   Khairkhan   which means loving king (for example   Asralt Khairkhan , a particularly intimate name meaning caring loving king ). Its forbidden to say the name of a Khairkhan when the mountain is in view. If the mountain is in view, it should simply be called Khairkhan, not its full name. This strict custom applies in all regions of Mongolia. Any mountain or hill that is pleasing to the sight or in any other way pleasant is praised with the words "that is indeed a special Khairkhan" or "what a majestic Khairkhan!" etc. Any area of the mountainous forest-steppe region understood alone or along with all that it contains (rivers, springs, plants, animals) may be praised with the words "that is indeed a great Khangai" or "there is no denying that that is a unique Khangai!" etc.


Khangai is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ko Angai [ Ka+ angh+ka] which means the sky which gives the rain. Kongai in tamil means the breast, the holy grail or the Aksaya [Aakasa] pathiram, which feeds the human with the milk. The name of the Indian River Ganga is the pure Tamil name KO angai, the breast [or the sky] . The name of the desert ‘Gobi' is the combination of ka +ba which means, we can see the ka [sky] or the ba[ earth] in the desert and nothing else. ‘Kobam ‘in Tamil means ‘anger'. Gobika, Gopalan are related propernames.



A   Dargah   ( Persian :   ?   dargâh   or  dargah ) is a   Sufi   Islamic   shrine   built over the grave of a revered religious figure, often a Sufi   saint   or   dervish . Local Muslims  may visit a shrine as a form of pilgrimage known as   ziyarat . Dargahs are often associated with Sufi meeting rooms and hostels, called   khanqah   or hospices. They usually include a   mosque , meeting rooms, Islamic religious schools ( madrassas ), residences for a teacher or caretaker, hospitals, and other buildings for community purposes.


The term   dargah   is derived from a Persian word which can mean, among other uses, "portal" or "threshold". Some Sufi and other Muslims believe that dargahs are portals by which they can invoke the deceased saint's intercession and blessing (as per   tawassul ). Still others hold a less supernatural view of dargahs, and simply visit as a means of paying their respects to deceased pious individuals or to pray at the sites for perceived spiritual benefits.


Dargah is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Thee ra ka [an] Khanqah is the Tamil ko ankh ka or kongai .


A   tariqa   (or   tariqah ;   Arabic :    ?ariqah , plural    ?uruq , from    "way, path";   Persian :   ?   tariqat ,   Turkish :   tarikat ) is the term for a school or order of   Sufism , or especially for the mystical teaching and spiritual practices of such an order with the aim of seeking   ?aqiqah "ultimate truth".


A tariqa has a   murshid   (guide) who plays the role of leader or spiritual director. The members or followers of a tariqa are known as   muridin (singular   murid ), meaning "desirous", viz. "desiring the knowledge of knowing God and loving God" (also called a   faqir   )

The metaphor of "way, path" is to be understood in connection of the term   sharia   which also has   the meaning of "path" , more specifically "well-trodden path; path to the waterhole". The "path" metaphor of   tariqa   is that of a further path, taken by the mystic, which continues from the "well-trodden path" or exoteric of   sharia   towards the   esoteric   haqiqa . A fourth "station" following the succession of   shariah ,   tariqa   and haqiqa   is called   marifa . This is the "unseen center" of   haqiqa , and the ultimate aim of the mystic, corresponding to the   unio mystica   in Western mysticism.


Tariqa is the corrupted form of the Tamil names Thee Ra Ka, [ or thirai ko] the path shown by the sun, the light avialble for all human beings equally.


 H adith   (plural: hadith, hadiths, or   a?adith ) is a saying or an act or tacit approval or disapproval ascribed either validly or invalidly to the   Islamic prophet   Muhammad .

Hadith are regarded by traditional   Islamic   schools of jurisprudence   as important tools for understanding the   Quran   and in matters of jurisprudence .   Hadith were   evaluated   and gathered into large collections during the 8th and 9th centuries. These works are referred to in matters of   Islamic law   and   history   to this day.


The largest denominations of Islam,   Sunni ,   Shi?a , and   Ibadi , rely upon different sets of hadith collections.


In Arabic the word   ?adith   means 'a piece of information conveyed either in a small quantity or large'. The Arabic plural is   ?a?adi? / a?adith  . Hadith   also refers to the speech of a person. As   ta?di? / ta?dith   is the infinitive, or verbal noun, of the original verb form;   hadith   is, therefore, not the infinitive;   rather it is a noun.


Mullah   is generally used to refer to a   Muslim   man, educated in   Islamic theology   and   sacred law . The title, given to some   Islamic clergy , is derived from the   Arabic   word   mawla , meaning "vicar," "master" and "guardian." In large parts of the   Muslim world , particularly Iran ,   Azerbaijan ,   Bosnia ,   Afghanistan ,   Turkey ,   Central Asia ,   Somalia   and   South Asia , it is the name commonly given to local Islamic clerics or mosque   leaders.

The title has also been used in some   Sephardic   Jewish   communities to refer to the community's leadership, especially religious leadership.


It is primarily understood in the Muslim world as a term of respect for an educated man. Ideally, a trained mullah will have studied Islamic traditions ( hadith ), and Islamic law ( fiqh ). They are often   hafiz , i.e., have memorized the Qur'an . However, uneducated villagers often recognize a literate Muslim with a less than complete Islamic training as their "mullah" or religious cleric. Mullahs with varying levels of training lead prayers in mosques, deliver religious sermons, and perform religious ceremonies such as birth rites and funeral services. They also often teach in a type of Islamic school known as a   madrasah . These three kinds of knowledge are applied mostly in interpreting Islamic texts (i.e. the   Quran ,   Hadiths , etc.) for matters of   Shariah , i.e., Islamic law.


Mullahs have frequently been involved in politics, but only recently have they actually taken power, when   Islamists   seized power in Iran   in 1979, and later, in Afghanistan under the   Taliban . Mullah or Ma allah [ Ma + al + la ] is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Malan ,the sun god who has all the wisdom . ‘Al' in Tamil means ‘night time ' and' la' means ‘the light' and hence Allah in Tamil means the light of the night ‘ the moon god'. Pakal in Tamil means , Pa+ka+la , the day time , and ‘Pakala van' means th sun . Quran is the Tamil Ko Aran ; Hadith [ ahadith , tahadith] is the Tamil Aa thi thee ; Shariah is the Tamil sa +ra+i +an , Sae Oraiyan , the res sun or the setting sun .



?aram   ( Arabic :   ?aram ) is an Arabic term meaning   sinful . In   Islamic Jurisprudence , haraam is used to refer to any act that is forbidden by God , and is one of five   (al-ahkam al-khamsah)   that define the morality of human action.   Acts that are haraam are typically prohibited in the religious texts of the Quran and the Sunnah. The category of haraam is the highest status of prohibition. Islam teaches that a haraam   (sinful) act is recorded by an angel on your left shoulder.   If something is considered haraam, it remains prohibited no matter how good the intention or how honorable the purpose.   A   haraam   is converted into a gravitational force on the day of judgement and placed on muwazeen (weighing scales).   Different madhabs can vary significantly regarding what is or is not haraam.


Haraam is the corrupted form of the Tamil word ‘ koram ‘ which means ‘ugly' and ‘Akoram' means ‘beautiful'. ‘Karam' in Tamil means ‘hot' or spicey which is a forbidden one for the celibacies.


Ordu-Baliq   (meaning "city of the court", "city of the army"), also known as   Mubalik   and   Karabalghasun , was the capital of the first   Uyghur Khaganate , built on the site of the former   Göktürk   imperial capital, 17 km north-to-northeast of the later Mongol capital,   Karakorum . Its ruins are known as   Kharbalgas   in   Mongolian , that is, "black city". They form part of the World Heritage Site   Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape .


Mabalik is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ma ba la ka or the Ba la gha su n of the Kara balghasun . Kara Balghasun is the Tamil Ko Orai Balakan, lord Murugan. Uyghur is the Tamil waghaiyur.


The   Orkhon River   ( Mongolian :   Orkhon gol ) is a   river   in   Mongolia . It rises in the   Khangai Mountains   of   Arkhangai   aimag   and flows northwards for 1,124 km (698 mi) before joining the   Selenge River , which flows north into   Russia   and   Lake Baikal . The Orkhon is longer than the Selenge, making it the longest river in Mongolia. Major tributaries of the Orkhon river are the   Tuul River   and   Tamir River .


There are two sets of ancient ruins along the river valley:   Khar Balgas , the ancient capital of the   Uyghur Kingdom   and   Karakorum , the ancient capital of the   Mongol Empire .   Pyotr Kuzmich Kozlov   excavated several   Hunnic   Imperial tombs   in the area of the river valley.


Orkhon is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Orai Kan . Arkangai is the Tamil orai Kangai. Selenge river is the tamil salangai. Tuul river is the Tamil ‘Thullal' and Tamir is the Tamil -Tamira or Thamara. Thamira - Barani is the name of the river in Tamil Nadu . Russia , the name is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ra +sa+i+ Aa , Rasaiya the land of Rasa , the red sun as in Rajasthan .



Pura Ulun Danu Batur   (also known as "Pura Ulun Danu," "Pura Batur" or "Pura Bat") is the second most important   temple   in   Bali , after Pura Besakih . Built in 1926, the temple is dedicated to   Dewi Danu , goddess of lakes and rivers. "Ulun Danu" literally translates as "head of the lake".


Kintamani   is a highland area in the north of   East Bali .

The area of north-eastern Bali at the Mount Batur caldera, and which encompasses   Penelokan ,   Toya Bungkah ,   Batur   and   Kintamani   villages, is known widely as just Kintamani. Kintamani, Batur and Penelokan villages sit on the rim of the huge Batur caldera about 1,500m above sea level, and offer dramatic views of the active volcano   Mount Batur   and serene   Lake Batur . Toyo Bungkah village is down at the lake edge. Kintamani is home to   Pura Ulun Danu Batur , one of Bali's key nine directional temples.



Kintamani is the corrupted form of the Tamil Kantha Dmani. Ko Anda Mani is the Kantha mani , the sun god. Batur caldera is the Tamil Cal tharai [ Kala thirai- the sky ], the earth . Panelokan is the Tamil ‘Lokapan' ; Toya Bunkah is the Tamil ‘ Theeya Pa Ankha'; batur is the Tamil ‘Ba thiri ‘ ;Dewi danu which is the corrupted form of the Tamil ‘Devi thanam' [ not the Deva thaanam ] , the breast of the Goddess Devi [ Theeya Aavee] from which the milky river comes out. Pura Ulun Danu Batur is the Tamil ‘ Peru Alan [ Peralan] Bathiri [ Ba thee Orai ] thaanam [ land] . Bathri Nath[an[ is lord Siva. Bali is the other form mof Bala.

Turgai (also Torgai or Turgay ) is a river that sits in the Turgai Valley in Kazakhstan.


Thurgai is the composition of Thee+ ra +ka. Durga is the original name of Turgai River.


The Charyn River is a river in the Almaty Province of Kazakhstan. It flows into the Ili River, which is considered to be the largest artery of Lake Balkhash. The Charyn River is 427 km long. It runs through the territory of Kegen and Uigur regions, forming up the Charyn Canyon.


The name Charyn is the corrupted form of the Tamil name, Ko Oraiyan or Kariyan. Balkhash is the corrupted form of the Tamil name, Bala kasan. ‘Puli kaesi ‘is a related proper name.


The Tersakkan River is a river of Kazakhstan. A left tributary of the Ishim River, it is 334 km long and has an area of 19,500 km². It flows through the western parts of Kazakhstan Uplands and the average annual flow is approximately 2.5 m³/ s, with a maximum up to 52.7 m³/s. The river freezes in November and thaws in mid-April. Peak flow is in April during snowmelt.


The name of the river Tersakkan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name , Thiru Sokkan or Thirai sokkan , the sun god , lord siva.


The Qapal (Kazakh: ????? ) is a river of Almaty Province, southeastern Kazakhstan. It is a tributary of the Qyzylaghash River, which ends in the plains south of Lake Balkhash. The main settlement on the river is the village Qapal.

The name Qapal is the corrupted form of the Tamil name ‘Kopala' or the Sanskrit ‘Gopla'.

The Kargala is a river of Kazakhstan, It flows through Aktobe Province. It flows into the Ilek River near Aktobe City.

Kari kalan [ ko Orai Kalan ] means the lord , Siva.


The Karatal River "Black Steppe" is the easternmost of the two large rivers that flow into Lake Balkhash, the other being the Ili River. It rises in the Dzungarian Alatau Mountains near the border of Kazakhstan and China. The river flows generally northwestward turning generally northward when it reaches the Saryesik-Atyrau Desert, a large sand desert south of Lake Balkhash. The river empties into Lake Balkhash near its center. Karatal freezes up in December and stays icebound until March.


Karatal is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Kara Athi Alai [kara+athila]. Athila means the' primordial light ‘.


Karaj, ( karadj, Karadje , and Karej, Qasabeh -e Karaj , Heredi , Keredi , and Leredi ) is a city in and the capital of Karaj County, Alborz Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 1,377,450, in 385,955 families, making it the fourth-largest city in Iran after Tehran, Mashhad, and Isfahan. It is situated 20 kilometres (12 mi) west of Tehran, at the foothills of the Alborz Mountains. However, the city is increasingly becoming an extension of metropolitan Tehran.

Karaj is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ko rasan , the great king. .


Aksaray (pronounced  ['aksa?aj] is a city in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey and the capital district of Aksaray Province. According to 2009 census figures, population of the province is 376 907 of which 171,423 live in the city of Aksaray.


Aksaray region was an important stopover along the Silk Road that crossed through Anatolia for centuries and the city of Aksaray has a long history.


The town of Garsaura was named Archelaïs , by Archelaus of Cappadocia, the last Cappadocian king. In Byzantine times, the town was known as Koloneia (?????e?a) and was a bishopric and an important military centre, holding an imperial aplekton .


Aksaray is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Aksara or Aa ka ya saram [ Aa+ka+sa+ra ] which means the' beads of stars of the sky' .

Garsaura is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Kara Asuran -- KO orai asuran.


Manchuria[] ( Manzhou ) is a historical name given to a large geographic region in northeast Asia. Depending on the definition of its extent, Manchuria usually falls entirely within China, or is sometimes divided between China and Russia. The region is now usually referred to as Northeast Chin a , although "Manchuria" is widely used outside China to denote the geographical and historical region. This region is the traditional homeland of the Xianbei, Khitan, and Jurchen peoples, who built several states historically. The region is also the home of the Manchus, after whom Manchuria is named.


"Manchuria" is a translation of the Japanese word Manshu , which dates from the 19th century. The name Manju was invented and given to the Jurchen people by Nurhaci, however, the name "Manchuria" was never used by the Manchus or the Qing dynasty itself to refer to their homeland. A Japanese, Takahashi Kageyasu invented the name Manchuria in 1809 in the Nippon Henkai Ryakuzu , from where Westerners adopted the name. Manchuria was converted into three provinces by the late Qing government. Since then, the "Three Northeast Provinces" was officially used by the Qing government in China to refer to this region, and the post of Viceroy of Three Northeast Provinces was established to take charge of these provinces.

Manchuria has historically also been referred to as Guandong ; which literally means "east of the pass", a reference to Shanhai Pass in Qinhuangdao in today's Hebei province, at the eastern end of the Great Wall of China. This usage is seen in the expression Chuang Guandong (literally "Rushing into Guandong") referring to the mass migration of Han Chinese to Manchuria in the 19th and 20th centuries. An alternate name, Guanwai ; Guanwài ; "(outside of the pass"), was also used for the region.


Manchuria is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ma ankh ko orai a[n] , the sun god, the great Oraiyan . Ma ankha is the ‘Mancha ‘or yellow color of the sun, the' Mancha oriyan'. . The term Manchu is the Tamil word which means yellow and it denotes the skin color, yellow of the Mongol people and it also indicates the yellow river . Hence Manchuria is ‘the land of the yellow people'. Mangol is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ma Angole, Ma +ankh +ko +la, the sun god. ‘Sengole‘[the scepter] is the related Tamil name to denote the ‘red sun'. Man kala [ Ma anda Kalan ] , the sun or Mun kala [ the pot] or Mangalam [prosperity ] are the words related to the word Mangol[ Man kola]. Manchus is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ma ankh an. Mangai or Mango and Manchal [turmeric] are the related words. Mangalapuram [Mangalore] and Mangala Devi are related names.

Guanwai is the pure Tamil name ‘Kanavaai ‘which means the ‘pass'.


Kargal is a town in the Shimoga district of Karnataka, India. It has a population of approximately 10,000 people. It was recently declared a "town panchayat" (TP) by the government of Karnataka. It is located 5 kilometres (3 mi) from Jog Falls and 30 kilometres (19 mi) from Sagara. It lies on the banks of River Sharavathi. This place gained importance after the construction of Linganamakki Dam in the year 1954, which is just 5 km away from Kargal town.


Look at the similarity of the names ' Karagal' , a place of Karnataka , south india , Kargil of Ladakh, Karkala of udupi ,Karnataka, with the ‘ Karagal' of Uzbekistan .

Kargil is a town, which serves as the headquarters of Kargil district of Ladakh in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India. It is the second largest town in Ladakh after Leh.


Karkala is a town and the headquarters of Karkala taluk in the Udupi district of Karnataka, India. Located about 380 km from Bangalore, it lies near the Western Ghats.


The town was called Pandya Nagari during the period of Jain rule, and later became known as Karikallu , then Karkal ( ???????) and finally to Karkala.


Black granite is abundant in the area, and is in wide use in the local architecture. The name of the town is derived from kari-kal , meaning black stone in Tulu.Some assert that the original name was 'Kari Kola' meaning 'elephant lake' which is the existing 'Anekere'. Tulu-speaking people call the town Karla . Muslims, and Kannadigas call it Karkala , and the Roman Catholics call it Karkol . Its alternative name, Jain Thirtha , is the result of 300 years of Jain rule. It was called Karkal by the English; later, it was called Karkala in Kannada. Karkala is on the top of a granite bed that is about 300–500 ft thick.


The Alupas were the first to rule Karkala. Their rule was followed by the Santaras, who were the feudatories of Alupas for many years. Karkala, or ancient Pandya Nagari, attained political and cultural importance from the time of the Kalasa-Karkala kingdom that was established by Bhairarasa Odeyas between 13th and 16th centuries. The Bhairarasas appear to be the descendants of the Santara chiefs, who ruled the western ghats region around the 11th century AD.


Later in the history this place also came under the rule of Tippu Sultan, known as the Tiger of Mysore. In addition to his role as ruler, he was a scholar, soldier, and poet. It was under him that some of the untold and disappearing landmarks of Karkal were made. One of the most immanent of the time was the Kotay kani moat made in front of the Karkal Kotay castle , which was used during his war against the East India Company. Alupas is the Tamil Alappan.


Look at the similarity of the names ' Karagal' , a place of Karnataka , south india , Kargil of Ladakh, Karkala of udupi ,Karnataka, with the ‘ Karagal' of Uzbekistan . The Karkal Kotay is the Khara Khoto of kara bator.


Nokhur[] (also Nohur ) is a settlement located in Turkmenistan. The area is known for sacred places connected to the Persian legend of the Peri, most notably the Gyz-bibi cave. According to the Turkmenistan government website, the origin of the name of Nohur is disputed, with some locals believing it derived from Noah (many places in the region carry Biblical names) and some from the Peri themselves, as "no" and "hur" translate "nine peri".The small and relatively untouched village of Nohur rests in an unmarked valley of the Kopet Dag Mountains, which make up the border of Iran and southern Turkmenistan. The people of Nohur dress and act conservatively, and their traditions have been able to survive Turkmenistan's modernization because of the remoteness of their village. Nohurli consider themselves as descendants of Alexander the Great.


Nokhur ‘ [Na ka Orai] is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Nagur , the ‘ur' [the village] of the Nagas [ snake worshippers] . It could mean the Tamil word Nagar which means the ‘city' . The name Nokhur is the combination of Na+Ka+ra where Naa ka or Naa kku means the tounge or the snake , Naga , and hence Nokhur also means ‘ the fire flames of the karan' , the sun god. Na also means' good'. Nagar, Naga and Nagur are related words.

Na+ka = Naga , where na is the tounge and ka is the sky and so naga means the tounge of the sky , the fire flames of the sun lord Siva . Hence Naga ia s a pure Tamil word and so Nagas must be one among the different sects of ancient Dravidian people.


Balkan Province (Turkmen: Balkan welaýaty ) is one of the Welayat (provinces) of Turkmenistan. It is in the far west of the country, bordering Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, the Caspian Sea, and Iran. Its capital is Balkanabat, formerly known as Nebit Dag.

Balkan is the Tamil Balakan. Balakan is the combination of Ba+la+ka +an which means the light[ eternal eye --kan] ] of the earth and the sky , the sun god, lord Murugan.


Karabakh[] (Armenian: Gharabagh ; Azerbaijani: Qarabag ) is a geographic region in present-day southwestern Azerbaijan and eastern Armenia, extending from the highlands of the Lesser Caucasus down to the lowlands between the rivers Kura and Aras. It includes three regions: Highland Karabakh (historical Artsakh, present-day Nagorno-Karabakh), Lowland Karabakh (the southern Kura-steppes), and a part of Syunik.


The word "Karabakh" is generally said to originate from Turkic and Persian, literally meaning "black garden". An alternative theory, proposed by Bagrat Ulubabyan, is that it has a Turkic-Armenian origin, meaning "Greater Baghk", a reference to Ktish-Baghk (later: Dizak), one of the principalities of Artsakh during the eleventh to thirteenth centuries.


Karabakh is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Karai paakkam [ Ko Orai Pakkam] . Paakkam means the ‘land near by' as in kelam pakkam , kodam pakkam, uoora [ orai ] pakkam of Chennai. Here the name indicates the land near by the banks of the river Kura ans Aras. Kara bakh means the city on the banks of the rivers Aras and Kura. The river ‘Kuras' is the Tamil ‘Karan' and the name ‘ Aras ‘is the Tamil ‘Aran' . Pakkam also means the village near by the hill or sea or simply a village.


Tondrakians (Armenian) were members of an anti-feudal, heretical Christian sect that flourished in medieval Armenia between the early 9th century and 11th century and centered around the city of Tondrak, north of Lake Van in Western Armenia.

The founder of the movement was Smbat Zarehavantsi, who advocated the abolishment of the Church along with all of its traditional rites. Tondrakians denied the immortality of the soul, the afterlife, the church and its feudal rights. They supported property rights for peasants, as well as equality between men and women. Tondrakians organized their communities in much the same fashion as did the early Christians under the Roman Empire during the first three centuries. They also participated in the peasant revolts of the 10th century, particularly in Ayrarat and Syunik. The Tondrakian movement resembled the Paulician movement in many ways, and various scholars consider it a continuation of the Paulician movement under different conditions, when Armenia was independent. The Paulician movement was of a social nature and simultaneously a resistance movement, directed against the Arabs and Byzantines, while the Tondrakian movement primarily had a social character and was used as a tool for class warfare.


The name of the place Thondrak is the corruptred form of the Tamil word Thee Anda Raakan. Thondrakiyan must be Pagan [fertility god and goddess] worshippers. Zarehanvantsi is the corrupted from of the Tamil name Saravan thee Saeyi or sayon . Saravan an is the Dravidian sun god Murugan.


Nissa -Ahal province -Turkmenistan

Nissa is one of the most important sites of the Parthian Empire . The Parthians ruled in Persia from 247 BC to 228 AD. They defeated the Seleucids (successors of Alexander the Great) and conquered great parts of the Middle East and southwest Asia.


The earliest settlements in the area of Nissa date back to the 4th millenium BC. In the 3rd century BC the Parthians built an impressive fortress at Old Nisa and erected a royal residence, which probably was the first royal residence of the Parthian kings. The city was named Mithradatkert (fortress of Mithradates) during the reign of King Mithradates the Great (174-138 BC). Greek sources refer to the city as administrative and economic centre during the reign of the Arsacid dynasty. The Arsacid dynasty conquered a huge area from the Indus to the Euphrates and Nisa became an important city on the crossroads of many cultures from Persia, Greece and Central Asia. New Nisa was conquered by the Arabian Caliphate in the 7th century and became part of the Seljuk Empire in the 11th century .


Nissa is the Tamil name for moon. ‘Nisi' in Tamil means ‘night' and Nissa means the beauty of the night, the moon. Mithradate is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ma tha ran or Maa thee Aran and Mithradatkert is the Tamil matharan kottai.Parthiyan is the corrupted form of the Tamil ‘Par theeyan' , the sun/ fire of the world. In Tamil Ahal means the Akhal villakku, a kind of oil Lamp; ‘ Akala means ‘ un natural' ; Akalam means the ‘breadth'

The Taklamakan Desert , also known as Taklimakan and Teklimakan , is a desert in the southwest portion of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwest China. It is bounded by the Kunlun Mountains to the south, the desert Pamir Mountains and Tian Shan (ancient Mount Imeon) to the west and north, and the Gobi Desert to the east.


The name is probably an Uyghur borrowing of Arabic tark , "to leave alone/out/behind, relinquish, abandon" + makan , "place". Another plausible explanation is that it is derived from Turki taqlar makan , which means "the place of ruins".Popular accounts claim that Takla Makan means "go in and you will never come out". It may also mean "The point of no return" or "The Desert of Death".


Taklamakan is the Tamil name ‘Thakkalai Makanam'. Thkkali maakanam is the combination of Thee+ Akh+ la Ma + Ka+ nam. Makanam in Tamil menas a ‘state', a big land. Theekalam [Thakali] means the hot desert. Thakkalai is place in Tamil Nadu. Thakkalai, the name is the combination of Thee +ka +la. The name of the vegetable Takkali -- Tomato [Thee kalam, red and rounded like the red star, the sun] has the same Dravidian magical letters of composition .


-- List of cities, towns and villages in Turkmenistan and their Tamil forms ;


Uzbeck Name Tamil form.

Adzhi ---------------------------Aathili [A+thee+la, Athi Ozhi --rimordial light].

Ak-depe ----------------------- A Ka Deepam [light].

Ak-kala----------------------------------Aka kalan [sun].

Ak- Kaya ----------------------------------Aakayam [sky].

Aman -------------------------- Amman [god].

Imeni Karla Marksa----------------- Ammani [ Ka +ra+la Ma+ra+ ko +sa --- Ammani Ra Kalan Murukasan [ Murgush river] .

Makhtum -kala---------------Ma+ka+thee+am + kalan -- Makatham. Kalan.

Malay -Adzhi ------------------------ Malai Aathee Ozhi.

Amannazar---------------------------Amman Naesan.

Annamurat ------------------------Anna Ma+Ra+thee , thre white and great fire god , sun [ like in the name Ponnamavarathy ].

Annavu -----------------------------------Anna Vi [the sun of the world].

Araki----------------------------Aa+ra+ka --Arakki -- the female of Raakkan.

Archin--------------------------Aa+ra+ka+an -- the male form of Raakkan.

Ata------------------------Athee -- the primordial fire.

Mamatay---------------- Ma Ma thee -- great and big fire.

Mary--------------------Ma orai .

Mekan-------------------Ma + ka+an --the great and ever seeing eye of the universe.

Mollakara--------------- Moola Karan ------------ the origin or the ‘beginning of everything' .

Mugal --Bala---------------- Ma kalan Balan. The word Mughul is a pure Tamil word.

Balkan -------------------- Balakan--- the bright light or the vision or the eye of the universe , the sun god.

Kala------------------------Kalan [the time keeper, the sun god.

Kala -I- Mor----------- Kalan Ma orai.

Kalayam------------------- The planet.

Nokhur--------------------- Nagur. The town of Nagas.

Permet-----------------------Peru Ma thee.

Karadepe------------------Kara [Ka orai] theepam.

Karagan--------------------Ka +ra+ka+an == Ko Rakkan. Karagam, Girakam are related words.

Karakala------------------ Karankalan. Karan, the kalan, Karan, the sun the time keeper. Kaar kaalam [winter] , Kar kaalam[stone age] Karungali are related words.

Karakhan ----------------------- Karan, the kon , the king.

Karakul------------------------------ Karungal -- blue metal or stone.

Kara-kuli--------------------------Karuguli -------- the sky.

Charvan-Kala-------------------Saravan, the kalan or Saravanan , the kalan .

Chashkent--------------------------- Kanda Sas thee.

Chemeli -----------------------------------Sem Malai.


-Shori payan------------------- Sori Muthu, lord Siva , Sori paiyan .

Staraya--Kara--Khan---kala----- Thiraiyan - Karan - Kon ---Kalan.

Dargana------------------------------Thiru Kanam.

Darganata-------------------------------Thiru KO Nathan.

Dargan-Ata---------------------------Athee or Athi Thee Rakkan.

Darvaza--------------------------------Thiru vasam or Thirai vasam.

Dayne----------------------------------Thee yoni.

Dervezekem ----------------------------Thiru Vasakam.

Deynau-----------------------------------Thee Naavu.

Dou kala --------------------------- Thee kalan.

Doyran--------------------------------Thee ran .


Kandakili----------------------------------Kanda kali.

Khar - Bala-------------------------------Bala kar or Balakan, the sun god, Murugan.

Khodzhara------------------------- KO Tharan.

Khodzhakala-----------------------KO thagan kalan.

Talimardzhan--------------------------------Thalai Mara thagan [thee Kan].


Tang kotan--------------------------Thee anga [thanga] ko Aten .

Tarkhan----------------------------Thee Rakkan.

Tejan-----------------------Thee saeyon.

Tersakkan---------------------Thiru Sokkan.

Esanguli ----------------------Esan kali.

Esanmangukli--------------------Esan Ma Anguli.

Caragum---------------------------Kara Ko Aram .

Carrygala------------------------- Kari kalan.

Imeni Andreyeva------------------Ammani Indraeyan.

Kul tura--- Kuli thurai or kal tharai.

Yagman -------------------------------Akaman.






Gandhara[] was an ancient Hindu Kingdom of Peshawar, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Gandhara was located mainly in the Peshawar Valley, the Pothohar Plateau and the Kabul River Valley where it thrived in its early phases as a Mahajanapada during Iron Age India. Its main cities were Purushapura (modern Peshawar), literally meaning "city of men", and Takshashila (modern Taxila) .


The Kingdom of Gandhara lasted from the early 1st millennium BC to the 11th century AD. It attained its height from the 1st century to the 5th century under the Buddhist Kushan Kings. The Persian term Shahi is used by history writer Al-Biruni to refer to the ruling dynasty that took over from the Turki Shahi and ruled the region during the period prior to Muslim conquests of the 10th and 11th centuries. After it was conquered by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1021 AD, the name Gandhara disappeared. During the Muslim period the area was administered from Lahore or from Kabul. During Mughal times the area was part of Kabul province.



The name Gandhara is not recorded in Vedic Sanskrit, it first occurs in the Classical Sanskrit of the epics. One proposed origin of the name is from the Sanskrit word gandha , meaning perfume and "referring to the spices and aromatic herbs which they [the inhabitants] traded and with which they anointed themselves." Some authors have connected the modern name Kandahar to Gandhara , but this is doubtful.


A Persian form of the name, Gandara , is mentioned by Herodotus in the context of the story of the Greek explorer Scylax of Caryanda who sailed down the Indus River beginning at the city of Caspatyrus in Gandara (?asp?t????, p???? Ga?da????). Herodotus records that those Indian tribes who were adjacent to the city of Caspatyrus and the district of Pactyïce had customs similar to the Bactrians, and are the most warlike of the Indians. These also are the Indians who obtain gold from the ant-hills of the adjoining desert. On the identity of Caspatyrus, there have been two opinions, one equating it with Kabul, the other with the name of Kashmir ( Kasyapa pur , condensed to Kaspapur as found in Hecataeus).


The Gandhari people were settled since the Vedic times on the banks of Kabul River (river Kubha or Kabol) down to its confluence with the Indus. Later Gandhara included parts of northwest Punjab. Gandhara was located on the northern trunk road (Uttarapatha) and was a centre of international commercial activities. It was an important channel of communication with ancient Iran, India and Central Asia.


The boundaries of Gandhara varied throughout history. Sometimes the Peshawar valley and Taxila were collectively referred to as Gandhara and sometimes the Swat valley (Sanskrit: Suvastu) was also included. The heart of Gandhara, however, was always the Peshawar valley. The kingdom was ruled from capitals at Kapisa (Bagram), Pushkalavati (Charsadda), Taxila, Purushapura (Peshawar) and in its final days from Udabhandapura (Hund) on the Indus. According to the Puranas, Taxila and Pushkalvati were named after Taksha and Pushkara, the two sons of Bharata, a prince of Ayodhya.


The name of the Gandharis is attested in the Rigveda and in ancient inscriptions dating back to Achaemenid Persia. The Behistun inscription listing the 23 territories of King Darius I (519 BC) includes Gandara along with Bactria and Thatagush (?ataguš, Satagydia). In the book "Histories" by Herodotus, Gandhara is named as a source of tax collections for King Darius. The Gandharis, along with the Balhika (Bactrians), Mujavants, Angas, and the Magadhas, are also mentioned in the Atharvaveda (AV 5.22.14), as distant people. Gandharas are included in the Uttarapatha division of Puranic and Buddhistic traditions. The Aitareya Brahmana refers to king Naganajit of Gandhara who was a contemporary of Janaka, king of Videha.


Gandhara had played an important role in the epic of Ramayana and Mahabharata. Ambhi Kumar was a direct descendant of Bharata (of Ramayana) and Shakuni (of Mahabharata). It is said that Lord Rama consolidated the rule of the Kosala Kingdom over the whole of the Indian peninsula. His brothers and sons ruled most of the Janapadas (16 states) at that time.


In Mahabharata, the princess named Gandhari was married to Hastinapur's blind king Dhritrashtra and was mother of Duryodhana and other Kauravas. The prince of Gandhara Shakuni was against this wedding but accepted it, fearing an invasion from Hastinapur. In the aftermath, Shakuni influences the Kaurava prince Duryodhana and plays a central role in the great war of Kurukshetra that eliminated the entire Kuru family, including Bhishma and a hundred Kaurava brothers. According to Puranic traditions, this country (Janapada) was founded by Gandhara , son of Aruddha, a descendant of Yayati. The princes of this country are said to have come from the line of Druhyu, who was a king of the Druhyu tribe of the Rigvedic period. According to Vayu Purana (II.36.107), the Gandharas were destroyed by Pramiti, aka Kalika, at the end of Kaliyuga.


Gandhara is also thought to be the location of the mythical Lake Dhanakosha, the birthplace of Padmasambhava, the founder of Tibetan Buddhism. The bKa' brgyud (Kagyu) sect of Tibetan Buddhism identifies the lake with the Andan Dheri stupa, located near the tiny village of Uchh near Chakdara in the lower Swat Valley. A spring was said to flow from the base of the stupa to form the lake. Archaeologists have found the stupa but no spring or lake can be identified.

Stupa is the Tamil ‘ Thuba kaal' the stand[ kaal] for the burning incense [ thubam] sticks .

The primary cities of Gandhara were Purushapura (now Peshawar), Takshashila (or Taxila) and Pushkalavati. The latter remained the capital of Gandhara down to the 2nd century AD, when the capital was moved to Peshawar. An important Buddhist shrine helped to make the city a centre of pilgrimage until the 7th century. Pushkalavati in the Peshawar Valley is situated at the confluence of the Swat and Kabul rivers, where three different branches of the River Kabul meet. That specific place is still called Prang (from Prayaga) and considered sacred and where local people still bring their dead for burial. Similar geographical characteristics are found at site of Prang in Kashmir and at the confluence of the Ganges and Yamuna, where the sacred city of Prayag is situated, west of Benares. Prayaga (Allahabad) one of the ancient pilgrim centres of India as the two rivers are said to be joined here by the underground Sarasvati River, forming a trive?i, a confluence of three rivers.

Gandhara is the corrupted form of the Tamil name [Ko + anda +Ra] Ko anda orai, the sun of the universe. Kandhari or Gandhari of Maka Baratha -- Ma Ka Ba Ra thee-- is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ko Anda Ori , the female form of ka Anda Oraiyan . The name Ma ka Ba Ra tha am is pure Tamil word denoting the big and great land of the sun god. Hastinapur is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Asthee --Naa - Puram -- Aa + sa+thee+na+ba+ra+am which means the fire flames [ Asthee +na] of the sun god . ‘Naa' is the ‘naakku' the tounge or the fire flame of the Na ka , the sun god . Dhritrashtran is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Thiru Ra sa tharan .Dyuryodhanan is the pure Tamil name Thirai Aa thanan or Thiru Aa thee nan . Kauravan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ko Aa Ra vaa an , ko Aravaan. Kuru -shetra is the Tamil Ko+ Ra+ sa+ thee+Ra+om , Ko Ara sae theeram which means , the red sky . Bhisman is the Tamil Ba +sa+Ma+an , Ba+samaan or Ba -suman, the great light of the earth . Ba+sa = pasu in Tamil , Purana is the short form of the Tamil word Purathanam which means “ the ancient past “ Janapada is the Tamil Sanam padai or Saenai padai or the Sana Pathai . Padai means the army; Saenai padai the army or the sun god; Sana pathai means the pathway of the sun god . Aruddha is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Aa+Ra+thee --Aa orai thee. Yayati is the Tamil Aa ya thee ---Aatheeyam. Druhu is the corrupted form of the Tamil name ‘Thiraiyan'. The mythical Lake ‘Dhanakosa' is the Tamil Theena kosa , thaana kasam the land of ko sa , the sun god , the sky , Ko sa thaanam . Kasi is the related name of a Hindu holy place and Kasi Nathan is lord Siva. Kosavan or Kuyavan in Tamil means, the pot maker, the sun god,' the great pot maker of the universe'.

Lahore is the Tamil, La Ka Orai or kala orai or kallarai [ grave yard]. It's ancient name' Shehwar elahi ka thikana ‘ is the Tamil ‘Sae orai ozhiaaki ko thee konam' the' land of the red sun' .

Aakasam in Tamil means the sky. Aa kosam means the grand celebration. ‘Kosam idu' means ‘to shout and make protest' so that the lord of the sky , the sun god could hear our voice cry voice . ‘Kaasu [Ka+sa] in Tamil means the coin , but then it symbolises the rounded shiny object of the sky , the sun. The root word for the Uzbekistan word ‘cassa' -- the cash , had it's origin from the Tamil word Kaasu including the the English word ‘Cash' .


Purusapuram is pure Tamil name Ba+Ra+sa+Ba+ra+om, Ba Rasa Puram, the place of the sun god in the earth. Purusan in Tamil means the husband, the sun. Pendati in Tamil the ‘wife', the moon. Pendati is the combination of ba+anda+athee and purusan is the combination of ba +Ra+sa-an. Parsu Raman, parisu and parisal, are related words and names with the same composition of magical Dravidian letters, Ba+ra+sa.


Takshashila is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Thee +ka+sa sa+la+am , ‘Thee kosa seelam' or Thee kosa salam . Salam is the mountain as in Arunachalam. Salam also means the ‘water'. ‘Seelam' means good and ‘seelan' is red the sun as in ‘Guna [ gana] seelan'. ‘Seelan ‘had corrupted to become the Ceylon. Gunam in Tamil means the nature or character and the basic compoistion of the word is Ko+an +am, the nature of sky . Ko salam had corrupted to become Ko -salai or Kosalai or Kowsalya. The son of Barathan , Taksha is the Tee Ko sa an, theekosan, the sun.

Peshawar is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Pa sa Orai or Pusha varan or poo sa va Aran [ ba+sa+vaa+Ra] . Bashai [the language], poosiyam [zero] poosai [ make fire-- pooja] ,pasam [affection,] pasi ,pusi , Paasi - mani are related pure Tamil words.


Pushkalavathi is the Tamil poo sa ka la [v]aa thee. Kala and Kalavathi , kaala vathi , ‘ kalai yatha thalai ,‘ kalai vaani , Baskaran , pushkarani are related Tamil names and words. The name Pushkalavathi is very much related to the name Peshawar. Pushya star, Thai pusam indicate that the word Pusha means white and shiny. ‘Pachi' means the breast which gives the milk. Pacha urundai [anthu urundai] also indicate that the word pacha or pusa or pusha means white. Poocha means the white cat. Pachai appan means the white god, the sun. However ‘Pachai' in Tamil also means the green color like the name Kari means both blue and dark. Pushkara, son of Barathan, has the pure Tamil name Pushya- karan , the white sun .



Udabhanda pura is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Aa theeba Anda Puram . Anda puram or Antha puram of palaces of kings is a related word.


Mardan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ma oraithan or Ma oraitheeyan.


Prayaga- yam is the corrupted form of the Tamil word [ ba+Ra+ Aa +ka+am], Para yokam . Prakasu , Pa Ra akkhu [ do not see here and there] Pa- Rakkan , para yokhi or yoghi, para or periya yogam , yaaga [yagnam], para yukam or yuga are related Tamil words.


Balhika is the Tamil name Ba la ka ; Mujavant is the Tamil Ma Sa vaa an thee; Angas is the Tamil Ankhan ; Magadha is the Tamil Ma+ka +thee+am. Makatham is the Macedonia of Alexander.


Pactyike a part of ancient Gandhara is the corrupted form of the Tamil name ba ka thee ka am , Bakthi akam. Caspatyrus is the Tamil Ka+ sa + ba - - -- thee+ ra+an , kosa bootharan or kasiyappa theeran. The river Caspatyrus is the Tamil Ka si appa athirai. Bacteria are the Tamil Ba+ Ka+thee +orai +am. The name of the king Darius is a pure Tamil word Thee+ orai +an , Theeran or Thiraiyan . Scylax native place Caryanda is a pure Tamil word Kari Andam, the ko orai an +thee +am, the dark blue sky. Kari Anda is the big vessel used for making food during mass gathering. The kari is the charred fire wood got struck up with the bottom of the vessel . Kari also means the sauce.


Kasmir is the Pure Tamil name Kosa Ma orai and Kambojam is the Tamil Ka --- Am+ba +sa+am, great [100petaled] and big lotus . ‘Ambai ‘is the catch word here, which denotes the lotus, red sun [male form] of the sky and the red lotus [female form] in the earth. Hence The sun is called as Ambai kumar , Ambai ko Ma Aran . The Greek word ‘ Amphibion' had it's root from the Tamil word Ambai . Ambi , Ambani ,Hambi , Amba , Ambal , Imphal- the city, Ambuli ,Ambika, Ambilika , Amba samuthiram[ Sa ma theeram] , Aa ba Vaanan , Ambattan [ Ambai athan] , Pataambi, Ambatta [place name] Ambalam, Ambala karan , all these words and proper names suggests duality . For example; Ambuli means the moon, one in the sky and one in the earth. The moon in the earth is none other than the woman who holds the name. Amba samuthiram means the ‘ sa ma therram' one in the sky and one in the earth, the place Amba samuthiram. Amba in Sanskrit means ‘near by' but then in Tamil it means one who dwells In two places. Anbu , ambu , abi [also appan] all indicate the same where ‘ Aa' means the great one at a distantance, Aaka sam and ba is the earth which is near by . Hence ‘abi ‘means ‘both the sky and the earth' [ Remember the Greek name Epimetheus [Abi Ma Theeyan] brother of Prometheus [ Perum Ma Theeyon]. Ambu, the arrow is named because the original ambu is the sun ray which comes from the sky to the earth .Ba +ambu = pambu in Tamil is the snake and it is the ‘Ambu of the earth' the ba . ‘Pambai [ba+ambai] pidi' in Tamil means' catch the snake'. The river Pamba, kerala is a related name of the river. The snake is the counterpart of the sky arrow, the ambu, the sunray, in the earth. Ambathur in Chennai is the corrupted form of Ambai =puthur where there is a lake near by the land area. Mumbai, the city's name is a pure Tamil name and it is the combination of Ma+Ambai.

The clear example to say that the Tamil word ‘Ambai' means ‘ here or there' , ‘sky or land ‘ is the phrase “Ambo vena kai vittan avanai !” ‘One was betrayed by another person in the middle of the travel ' or ‘one left him deserted in between so that the person can not have a stand either in the sky or in the land , and was left hanging in the middle!'



Atharva Veda is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Aa thee Ra vaa vai thee or vethi or ve thee. Aitareya Brahamana is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Aa +thee + raya - ba + Ra + ma+ an+ an .


Triveni is the Tamil ‘ Thirai vaani' or Thee orai yoni and the word had been misinterpreted as ‘ three' by Sanskrit scholars as they did to the Tamil word pancha as' four.' ‘Sangamum' is the pure Tamil word with the composition of Sa+ankh+Ka+ma+am [ Ma Anda sankhu of Sa , the sun god, lord Siva. Kungumam is the related word. Thri

kona malai of Srilanka is the ‘Thiri [thee orai or thirai ] koanam Malai' and it is nothing do woth the number ‘three' .


Kabul -- en - Kabul also spelled Cabool , Caubul , Kabol , or Cabul , mostly in historical contexts, is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan. It is also the capital of Kabul Province, located in the eastern section of Afghanistan. According to a 2012 estimate, the population of the city is 3,289,000. Kabul is the 64th largest and the 5th fastest growing city in the world.


The word " Kubha " is mentioned in Rigveda and the Avesta and appears to refer to the Kabul River. The Rigveda praises it as an ideal city, a vision of paradise set in the mountains. The area in which the Kabul valley sits was ruled by the Medes before falling to the Achaemenids. There is a reference to a settlement called Kabura by the rulers of the Achaemenid Empire, which may be the basis for the future use of the name Kabura (??ß???a) by Ptolemy. It became a centre of Zoroastrianism followed by Buddhism and Hinduism. Alexander the Great explored the Kabul valley after his conquest of the Achaemenid Empire in 330 BC but no record has been made of Kabul, which may have been only a small town and not worth writing about. The region became part of the Seleucid Empire but was later gifted to the Indian Maurya Empire.


Etymological interpretation;

The name ‘Kabul' is the combination of ka+ba+la. Kabala Moorthy is lord Siva. Kopala or Gopala , Kabalam, the skull , Kabilan, Kabila vasthu , Kublas Khan, kapil dev , are related names and words with the basic composition of Tamil letters , being ka+ba+la.The Tamil word Kappal, ship , also has the composition of ka +ba+la sailing on the ocean as the great sailor ‘Kopalan' in the sky .


Indus River is the corrupted form of the name Indiran, or Inthiran. Etymologically the name India had it's root from the word ‘ indiran', the land of Anda thee oraiyan [ Anda oraiyan--Andraeya ] .


Utthrapatha is a pure Tamil word Uthira -- Aa thera pathai. ‘Pathai' in Tamil means ‘path' in English.


Punjab [];


Punjab  also spelt   Panjab , is a   state   in the northwest of the   Republic of India, forming part of the larger   Punjab region. The state is bordered by the Indian states of   Himachal Pradesh   to the east,   Haryana   to the south and southeast and   Rajasthan   to the southwest as well as the Pakistani province of   Punjab   to the west. It is also bounded to the north by the Indian state of   Jammu and Kashmir. The state capital is located in   Chandigarh, which is a   Union Territory   and also the capital of the neighbouring state of   Haryana.


The   Greeks   referred to Punjab as   Pentapotamia , an inland delta of five converging rivers.   In   Avesta, the sacred text of Zoroastrians, the Punjab region is associated with the ancient   hapta h?ndu   or   Sapta Sindhu, the Land of Seven Rivers. Historically, the   Punjab region   has been the gateway to the   Indian Subcontinent   for people from   Greece,   Central Asia,   Iran, andAfghanistan   and   vice versa.


The word   Punjab   is a   xenonym / exonym   from the   Persian   words   panj   and   Ab   which are cognate with the   Sanskrit   words ‘Pan'j and "ap" that means "five" and "water", respectively, thus   PanjAb   means "Five Rivers", which roughly means "Land of Five Rivers".The five rivers are the   Beas ,   Sutlej ,   Ravi ,   Chenab   and   Jehlum   (also spelled Jhelum). Traditionally, in English, there used to be a definite article before the name, i.e. "The Punjab".   The name is also sometimes spelled as "Panjab". The name   Punjab   was given to the region by   Turkic   Muslim conquerors and popularized during the reign of the   Mughal Empire   in the 17th century CE.


The name ‘Punjab' is the combination of ba+ anda+ sa+Aa+ba, Pa anda saba. ‘Pa anda ‘ --Panda means the earth and' ko anda' - Kanda - is the sky. Pantha, a slang word means ‘boosting oneself'. Saba is the sun and Suba is the moon. Soba means ‘beautiful'. Sabai means the meeting hall. Hence Punjab could mean ‘the meeting place of the sun god [sababathi] namely, the sky


‘Panju' [ Pa +anda + sa ] in Tamil means ‘cotton' which is white in color as that of the sun . ‘Poonja kaalan' in Tamil means the white coloured mushroom which is very much similar to that of the sun .' Kaalan' means the sun and ' Poonja kalan' means the white sun or the white mushroom. Poocha [ ba +ka ] in Tamil means the white kittens . ‘Panjapa kaesan ‘is lord Siva, the sun god who has white hairs[ kaesam] , the sun rays. Mayir in Tamil means the scalp hair and the word is the combination of Ma+Orai. ‘Poochandi', in Tamil means the sun god , the vellai Andi.


The name ‘Paanjali' is the combination of Panju+la means the shining white moon. Here the' sa' of Paan sa li denotes the moon. Hence ‘Paanjali' getting married to five Pandavan [ Panja pandavan] is really a foolish mythical theme with total ignorance of the meaning of the Dravidian Tamil word ' Panju' and misinterpreting the word ‘ Panju' with Sanskrit number, the five . ‘Anjalai' and ‘Manjula' are related proper names to the name Paanjali with the similar meaning of ‘moon' or ‘yellow moon '.


‘ Pancha Pandavan' means white and shiny Pa Andavan [the ruler] or Pa Anda Devan or Pa Anda Theeyavan , the sun god. Hence the word ‘Pancha Pandava', per se does not mean ‘five brothers'.


Coming again, to the etymiology of the name Panjab, Appu means the river . Panja appu means the shiny , silvery white river of the earth [ba] as that of the ‘milky way ‘ of the Andam , the universe. So, Panjab, means “Palaaru'' in Tamil . However the word ‘Pancha' can be read as ba +anchu and ‘ba' is the ‘water' and ‘anchu' [slang] is the Tamil ‘Ainthu' [five] and so the name Panjab could , mean the land off five rivers. In that case Panjab is purely a Tamil word. However, I assume that this idea is not an interpretation but a wild imagination!


Paanju' in Tamil means' fast running or fast flowing or galloping and so the name Panjab could mean the land of fast flowing rivers.

Pancha lingam Moorthy [Ma orai thee] ;


Pancha Bootham is the white sun the single god, the Bootharan. Here ‘boo' or ‘poo' means the ‘fire sparks' as in ‘thee Pori' or ‘poo satti ‘.


Dravidian name ‘Pancha Boothangal' [plural] indicates the five elements. Pa + anju = Pancha and Anju or Ainthu means the five. Mathru Bootham means Ma Aathe Orai Bootharan. Pancha Nathan is the sun god, lord Siva.


The word Pancha lokam , simply means the white sky and the Pancha [ pa+anchu] Ulokam , denotes not the the five elements , like the Aim pon , the five metals. Pancha ulokam denotes any one of the white shiny metals , like Thangam[ Thee +angam] , silver[ Velli] , brass [ venkalam-- the white space ship or planet] , copper, iron[erumbu] and also includes the Vairam[ diamond--Vairvan== Vai+Orai+vaan], Platinum etc. pancha uloka idol is not necesarily made up of five metals but any one of the shiny metals. Note that the names of the shiny metals in Tamil language are symbolising the sun.


Pancha Varna kizhi; Pancha Varanan kizhi or Pancha Oriyan kizhi means the white coloured parrot. Pancha varnam is the common propername among the women of Tamil nadu. Anna kizhi is the white-- Kali, the moon goddess.


‘Pancha Sara' in Malayalam means the ‘white sugar'. Sara is the short form of Tamil name s'ar [a[karai'.


Pancham means' drought ‘and it is because of the prolonged hot summer and no rain water. The name ‘Benjamin ‘should mean the sun, the star of the east.


Panchalan kuruchi ; Pa an cha lan Ko Orai sae is the composition of the name of the place , Panchalam kuruchi , in Tamil Nadu.


Panchamar means the ‘sun ‘ [ Pancha maran ] or the ‘sun worshipper' . Panchama -pathakam means the ‘sin against the sun god'. Panchamar are not the untouchables. In fact they were the people who were allowed to touch and handle the idols of sun god in the temples, in the ancient past before the the establishment of caste system by the Aryan. Theendamai in Tamil means ‘untouchability'. Theeandami is the combination of Thee +andamai which means these ‘untouchable' people are not eligble to touch the sacred fire, the thee. if so why?! The Paraiyan [ ba +oraiyan] , Pallan [ Ba +la+an ], Sakkiliyan [ sa+ka+la+an], Arunthathiyar-- Aa +Ra+an+tha+thee+an [ Orai Anda thaa thee Aa an , Pulaiyan -the Palaiyan , Ambalakaran the sungod . ‘Thaa thee' [-the moon/sun] in Tamil means Nursing woman .


Panchu Arunachalam means white Aruna sa la [Aa+Ra+an+sa+la ] , the sun god , single god , lord Siva.


Pancha Amirtham does not mean ‘the mixture of five fruits'; It is the ‘white amutham' namely the sweet milk.


Pancha Kalyani ‘means the ‘white ka la ya an'. Kalyani means ‘beautiful', the white moon. The male counterpart is kalyanam, the sun.


The word Panchankam [Sanskrit--Panchanka] is the combination of ba +anda + sa +ankh+ ka+om and it means the white body [ankh] -- white body of the universe [andam[an ]+ sky[ka] + earth[ba] ] , the sun [ sa]. Hence Panchankam means the study about of the sun movements [apparent] and it is nothing to do with the Sanskrit ‘Pancha' , the' five'. The word Pancha with the meaning of five was attributedby by the Sanskrit scholars who had no knowledge about the etymology of the Tamil word ‘Pancha'. Arasangam, In Tamil means the government. it means the the land is ruled by the Aran or Aa thee Ra an , the sun god. Rasankam is a pure Tamil word, the Ra, the sun is the head of the Government.


‘Pancha Makaras' is nothing to do with five M's , namely the Madya [ Ma theeyam] pani , the white drink , the kallu , Maamesam Ma Aa ma sa am - Ma- amsam - the sacrificial object for the the sun god ] , the meat, Matsya [ Ma+ Aa +thee+ Sa +ya ] , the fish ; Mudra - Muthitrai [ positions of the Ma theran in the Ma thirai ] , the grains ; Maithunam [ Ma thee an am] . Pancha Makaran is the only one, white ‘Ma karan', the sun. Even the name of the fish, Matsya, is purely a Tamil word. Makara villakku is a related word. The naming of the word ‘ Pancha ‘ the five, to the tantric rituals should be relatively a late one after the invasion of Aryan in India.


Pancha tantra, Pancha Tulasi ; Pancha suktham; Pancha kosa ;Pancha Dwaraka[ Thee + orai+ ka ], are related words with the Psudo meaning of five . Naga panchami is misread as Pa -anju +nagami[ five headed Nagam] and Pancha naga is the only one lord Siva .

Panchayati raj ; means the Rasiyam , or the land governed by the' ‘Pancha Aa ya thee the sun god , the single god .



Herat [];

Herat is the capital of Herat province in Afghanistan. It is the third largest city of Afghanistan, with a population of about 397,456 as of 2006. It is situated in the valley of the Hari River, which flows from the mountains of central Afghanistan to the Karakum Desert in Turkmenistan. The city is linked with Kandahar and Mazar-e-Sharif via highway 1 or the ring road that stretches across the country. It is also linked to the city of Mashad in Iran through the border town of Islam Qala.


Herat dates back to ancient times, but its exact age remains unknown. During the period of the Achaemenid Empire (ca. 550-330 BC), the surrounding district was known as Haraiva (in Old Persian), and in classical sources the region was correspondingly known as Aria (Areia). In the Zoroastrian Avesta, the district is mentioned as Haroiva . The name of the district and its main town is derived from that of the chief river of the region, the Hari River (Old Iranian Harayu , "Golden Water"), which traverses the district and passes some 5 km (3.1 mi) south of modern Herat. Hari is mentioned in Sanskrit as yellow or golden color equivalent to Persian Zar meaning Gold (yellow). The naming of a region and its principal town after the main river is a common feature in this part of the world—compares the adjoining districts/rivers/towns of Arachosia and Bactria


Herat is the corrupted form of the Tamil name ‘Aa Ra thee' or ‘Aarthi' or ‘Orai thee'. The names Haravia , Aria , Hari or Harayu are simply the corrupted forms of the Tamil original word Orai -Aa thee , the golden sun .



Kandahar or Qandahar ( Qandahar ), known in older literature as Candahar , is the second largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 491,500 as of 2012. It is the capital of Kandahar Province, located in the south of the country at an altitude of 1,010 m above sea level. The Arghandab River runs along the west of the city.


Some scholars believe that the name "Kandahar" may be a transliteration of "Is[kandar]" , the local version of the name Alexander, after Alexander the Great who founded the city in 330 BC and named it Alexandria. A temple to the deified Alexander as well as an inscription in Greek and Aramaic by Emperor Ashoka, who lived a few decades later, have been discovered in Kandahar. Ibn Batutta mentions Kandahar in the 14th century by describing it as a large and prosperous town three nights journey from Ghazni. It has been then mentioned extensively by Mughal Emperor Babur and others.

Another etymology offered is that the word "kand" or "qand" in Persian and Pashto (the local languages) means "candy". The name "Candahar" in this form probably translates to candy area. This probably has to do with the location being fertile and historically known for producing fine grapes, pomegranates, apricots, melons and other sweet fruits.


An alternative etymology derives the name of the city from Gandhara, the name of an ancient Buddhist kingdom located in the Swat District of Pakistan, although Kandahar in modern times and the ancient Gandhara are not geographically identical but are far away from each other.


Ernst Herzfeld claimed Kandahar perpetuated the name of the Indo-Parthian king Gondophares, who re-founded the city under the name Gundopharron.



Kandhakar is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ka+anda +ka+ Ra+an , that means the Karan of the Ko andam the sun of the universe. Gondo phares is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ko anda paeraiyan, Peru oraiyan. Anda kara[ anda kari-- the darkness of the universe ] irul in Tamil means the primordial darkness and Ko anda kara could mean the sun who illuminated the kanda kara darkness.




Multan is a city in Punjab, Pakistan. It is Pakistan's fifth largest city by population and has an area of 133 square kilometers (51 sq mi). The city is located on the banks of the Chenab River in the geographic center of the country.


Multan is known as the City of Sufis or City of Saints and Madinat-ul-Auliya because of the large number of shrines and Sufi saints from the city. The city is blanketed with bazaars, mosques, shrines, and ornate tombs. It is the birthplace of Fariduddin Ganjshakar (popularly known as "Baba Farid"), recognized as the first major poet of the Punjabi language. Multan is located in a bend created by five rivers of central Pakistan. The Sutlej River separates it from Bahawalpur and the Chenab River from Muzaffar Garh. The city has grown to become an influential political and economical center for the country, with a dry port and excellent transport links. Multan is famous for its crops: wheat, cotton, sugar cane, mangoes, citrus, guavas, and pomegranates


Sun Temple of Multan   also known as   Aditya Sun Temple   was an ancient   Hindu   temple dedicated to   Surya   also called   Aditya , which was located in city of   Multan , in modern Punjab ,   Pakistan .


The original Sun Temple at Multan is said to have been built by   Samba , son of   Krishna , to get relief from disease of   leprosy . This Sun Temple has been mentioned also by   Greek   Admiral   Skylax , who passed through this area in 515 B.C. Multan, earlier known as Kashyapapura, and its temple are also mentioned by   Herodotus .


Hsuen Tsang   is said to have visited this temple in 641 AD and had described the deity made of pure gold with eyes of large red rubies.   Gold, silver and gems were abundantly used in its doors, pillars and   shikhara . Thousands of Hindus regularly went to Multan to worship Sun God. He is also said to have seen several dancing girls ( devadasis ) in the temple. He further mentions the deities of   Shiva   and   Buddha   were also installed in the temple Even after conquest of Multan by   Umayyad Caliphate   in 8th Century AD, under   Muhammad bin Qasim , the Sun Temple was left intact, as it was a source of great income. Al-Baruni , who also visited Multan in 10th Century AD has also left glowing description of it. However, the temple is said to have been finally destroyed by   Mahmud of Ghazni   in 1026 AD



The city of Multan may get its name from the   Sanskrit   name   Mulasthana   named after location of this Sun Temple.   The exact site of Sun Temple of Multan is, however, unknown and subject of debate for researchers.



Multhan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Mulai [breast] thanam or Moola thanam [Ma +la+ thee+an+am ] . Mulai thaanam had become later as Moola thaanam and ‘Sunni [penis-the lingam] thaanam' had later become ‘Sanni thanam'. There was a famous sun temple [Siva temple] in Multan. Chanab River is the Tamil sa +an+ap. Swapna is a related name. Swapna means ‘dream' and so the word is related to the moon. Hence Sanap or sanab means the Milky Way, the paalaru in Tamil. Arul migu ‘Sappaani' Karuppar is the sun god . Sappani is the combination of sa+pani, the sun who resides in the ice mopuntains of Himalayam. Sappan or Jappan is purely aTamil word denoting the sun. Suppan is the related word. Sutlej River is the Tamil Sa +thee + la + sa. Sailasa or Sailaja and Jalaja are related names. Sutlej means the the daughter of the mountain, parvathi, Pa +ra+vaa+=thee, the fire of the sky.


Aditya is the Tamil Aathi theeyan and samba is the combination of sa+amba. Sambbokan, Senbakam, samba, Sembu, Sombu, Sembai etc are related names. Shikara is the Tamil Sigaram, the peak or the top


Chembai Vaidyanatha Bhagavatar   ( September 1, 1896 – October 16, 1974), was a   Carnatic music   singer from   Palakkad   (state of   Kerala ,   India ) Known by his village name   Chembai.


The Bolan Pass is a mountain pass through the Toba Kakar Range of Balochistan province in western Pakistan, 120 kilometres from the Afghanistan border.

Strategically located, traders, invaders, and nomadic tribes have also used it as a gateway to and from South Asia. The Bolan Pass is an important pass on the Baluch frontier, connecting Jacobabad and Sibi with Quetta, which has always occupied an important place in the history of British campaigns in Afghanistan.

Traditionally, the Brahui of the Baluchi ethnic group are in charge of the law and order situation through the Pass area. This tribe is still living in present day Balochistan in Pakistan, and they still preserve their Dravidian Language


The Bolan Pass is the Tamil Balan, the sun god. The palace Balochistan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ba la ka thaanam. The Toba kakar is the Tamil ka karan theebam. The word Brahui is the combination of Ba+Ra+ka or Kubaeran , the custodian sof the Kyber pass . Baluchi is the Balakan and the short form is Balan, the custodian of the Bolan Pass.


Kybar pass[ pass];


The Khyber Pass is a mountain pass connecting Afghanistan and Pakistan, cutting through the northeastern part of the Spin Ghar Mountains. An integral part of the ancient Silk Road, it is one of the oldest known passes in the world. Throughout history it has been an important trade route between Central Asia and South Asia and a strategic military location. The summit of the pass is 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) inside Pakistan at Landi Kotal.


Kybar pass is the corrupted form of the Tamil name, Kubaeran, Ka +ba+ Ra+ an. ‘Kubaeran' was the lord of wealth who was the guardian of the south and the Kybar pass was the route to enter southern Asian land India, the' Kubara desam' from central Asia in the ancient times.


Indu Kush [ Kush ];


The Hindu Kush also known as Pariyatra Parvata or Paropamisadae (Greek: ?a??paµ?s?da?), is an 800 km (500 mi) long mountain range that stretches between central Afghanistan and northern Pakistan.


The highest point in the Hindu Kush is Tirich Mir (7,708 m or 25,289 ft) in Chitral District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.


Hindu Kush divides the valley of the Amu Darya (the ancient Oxus River) to the north from the Indus River valley to the south. To the east the Hindu Kush buttresses the Pamir range near the point where the borders of China, Pakistan and Afghanistan meet, after which it runs southwest through Pakistan and into Afghanistan, finally merging into minor ranges in western Afghanistan.

In the time of Alexander the Great, the Hindu Kush range was referred to as the Caucasus Indicus or the "Indian Caucasus" (as opposed to the Greater Caucasus range between the Caspian and Black Seas), and some past authors have considered this as a possible derivation of the name "Hindu Kush". However, many other theories have been propounded by different scholars and writers for the origins of the modern name Hindu Kush . Hindu Kuh and Kuh-e Hind are usually applied to the entire range separating the basins of the Kabul and Helmand rivers from that of the Amu River (ancient Oxus ). or more specifically, to that part of the range lying northwest of the Afghan capital Kabul. Sanskrit documents refer to the Hindu Kush as Pariyatra Parvata .

Some sources state that the term "Hindu Kush" originally applied only to the peak in the area of the Kushan Pass, which had become a center of the Kushan Empire by the 1st century AD. This mountain range was also called Paropamisadae by Hellenic Greeks in the late first millennium BC.

The Persian-English dictionary indicates that the word 'koš' is possibly derived from the verb 'koštan' meaning to kill. Although the derivation is only a possible one, some authors have proposed the meaning 'Kills the Hindu' for "Hindu Kush", a derivation reproduced in Encyclopedia Americana :

The name Hindu Kush means literally 'Kills the Hindu', a reminder of the days when Indian slaves from the Indian subcontinent died in the harsh weather typical of the Afghan mountains while being transported to Central Asia.

However, this derivation is challenged by historical documents, such as the writings of 14th century explorer Ibn Battutah, who explains that the words "Hindu Kush" refer to the harsh meteorological conditions and frost that was responsible for the death of many local travellers in that region. At the time, the word Hindu was a secular term which was used to describe all inhabitants of the Indian subcontinent – or Hindustan – irrespective of their religious affiliation. It was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists referred collectively to the followers of some Indian religions as Hindus. The World Book Encyclopedia states that "the name Kush means Death". While Encyclopædia Britannica says 'The name Hindu Kush first appears in 1333 AD in the writings of Ibn Battutah, the medieval Berber traveller, who said the name meant 'Hindu Killer', a meaning still given by Afghan mountain dwellers who are traditional enemies of Indian plainsmen.

The word "Koh" or "Kuh" means mountain in some local languages. According to Nigel Allan, "Hindu Kush" meant both "mountains of India" and "sparkling snows of India", as he notes, from a Central Asian perspective. Others maintain that the name Hindu Kush is probably a corruption of Hindi-Kash or Hindi-Kesh, the boundary of Hind (i.e. India).


Indu Kush is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Indira Kosam. Indu Kush means ‘The sky land or the high land of Indiran'. Indu is the short form of Indiran and Kush means the sky, The Sanskrit name Pariyatra is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Periya [ big] Aathee Orai [ ATHIRA] ----- Pa Ra va tham , the dwelling place of the great sun. The Greek name Paropomisadae is the corrupted form of the Tamil name b[p]a+Ra+b[p]a-----Maa+sa+thee , the land [ parappu] of the Great[ maa] sun[ sa thee] . The Caucasus is the corrupted form of the Tamil name ka+Aakh+sa+an, which means ‘the place made for the sun' .


Pamir Mountains [ Mountains];

The Pamir Mountains are a mountain range in Central Asia formed by the junction or knot of the Himalayas, Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush ranges. They are among the world's highest mountains, and since Victorian times, they have been known as the "Roof of the World", presumably a translation from Persian.


Pamir mounrtain is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Pa ma Aran which means the ‘Ma Aran of the earth'. MA Aran means the great fort or great wall. Pamaran in Tamil also means ‘an ordinary person' the common of the sun god. Paraman in Tamil is god.



Mohenjo-daro lit. Mound of the Dead ; is an archeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Built around 2600 BCE, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, and one of the world's earliest major urban settlements, contemporaneous with the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete. Mohenjo-daro was abandoned in the 19th century BCE, and was not rediscovered until 1922. Significant excavation has since been conducted at the site of the city, which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980. However, the site is currently threatened by erosion and improper restoration.


Mohenjo-daro, the modern name for the site, simply means Mound of the Dead in Sindhi. The city's original name is unknown, but analysis of a Mohenjo-daro seal suggests a possible ancient Dravidian name, Kukkutarma ("the city [ -rma ] of the cockerel [ kukkuta ]"). Cock-fighting may have had ritual and religious significance for the city, with domesticated chickens bred there for sacred purposes, rather than as a food source.



Kukkuta Sastra  [ satra] (also called Cock Astrology) is a form of   divination   based on   cock fighting , commonly believed in coastal districts of   Andhra Pradesh ,   India . It is particularly prevalent in state, especially in the districts of   Krishna ,   Guntur ,   East   and   West Godavari   during the   Sankranti   festival. Kukkuta Sastra with reference to the calendar and cock color "is almost certainly associated to a "cock almanac" reported in South India (Saltore 1926-1927, pp 319–327)"   and a religious claim of foretelling the future "merely by indicating the color associated with the strongest planet in an   Horary Figure ".


Kukkuta Sastra with further reference to the calendar, the cock within an astrological and religious schema and that divine association as with   Lord Murugan   and the rooster, his flag, "refers to the sun" and also associated with  Ahmuvan , an   Indus Valley   Deity .


A further understanding of the need of the   kukkuta   being within a religious and astrological context may be taken from the Akkadian, Shidallu or the Sumerian,   SIPA.ZI.AN.NA   (the True Shepherd of Anu or Heavenly Shepherd) and his accompanying   cock   representing the herald of the gods with the divinely ordained role "to communicate the messages of the gods".   and being from the religions of the pre- Vedic Aryans   and the   Indus Valley   and similar to the ancient religions of the Mediterraneans as determined from "findings of excavations of   Mohonjodaro   and   Harrappa ".Further understanding of the possible significance of kukkuta sastra and the kukkuta association with Mohenjo-daro may be gained from the original   Dravidian   name of   Mohenjo-daro   which seems to have been recorded in the ancient Indus script. With the understanding that   kukkuta   means   rooster   or cock, Dr.   Iravatham Mahadevan , in a paper presented at the   World Classical Tamil Conference 2010 , brought forth the literal meaning of   Kukkutarma , as "the ruined city of the cock". [ Mahadevan also drew attention to an Indus seal from Mohenjo-daro, which has an inscription featuring the Indus ideogram for "city" and a pair of cocks, inferring that “the Indus seal has recorded in the Indus script the original Dravidian name of the city, IA   kukkuta-arma , with the ideographic suffix CITY added to it”.


Kukkuta Sastra discloses various types of fighter cocks, their care and medication, the influences of various   Zodiac   signs on the cocks and their winning strategies, and rules to be followed by the owner of the cock before putting the bet. In   Sanskrit , Kukkuta means a Cock (also called   Rooster ). Kukkuta Sastra became popular after the   Bobbili   and   Palanadu Wars which were the result of   Cock Fighting .


Mochanjathara is the corrupted form of the Tamil names Ma+ka+an+sa + thee-+Ra +am. Ma means great or big; Kanjana means golden flower ; theeram is wide land near by a river or ocean or the sky. Thara could mean the ‘thaara', the star or the Tharai, the land. Hence ‘Mohenjo daro' means the sky with golden flower, the sun. Kukuta Rama [ Ma +Ra] is none other than the sun god lord Murugan , whose flag has the rooster emblem . This gives the strong suspicion that the Dravidian Indus Valley civilization was destroyed by the invading Aryan nomads. To up lift the Dravidian civilization , lord Siva took the Avatharam of lord Murugan, to kill the Aryan sun god, Soora Padman , lord Vishnu.



‘Kukuta', the Sanskrit name for the rooster and the English word Cock are onamatopoic words of origin from the cry of the rooster,' kokoraka kokoraka! Kockou kockuo! ‘ . Infact the Dravidian magical letter' Ra' was taught by the rooster itself by it's welcoming cry in the early morning during the sun rise. The ka, letter was taught to the Dravidian by the crow, by its cry'ka kaa!' Ahmuvan, ther Dravidian Indua Valley deity is the Tamil Om maa vaa an , the sungod.

‘ Kanjan' in Tamil also means the miser; ‘Konju' in Tamil means coax or cajole or pampering ; ‘Kanji' in Tamil means the rice porridge ; ‘Kaanju tharai ' in Tamil means ‘ dry land ; ‘Kenju' in Tamil means to ‘plead'. Kaanji - puram and Kanjirapally are names of the places in Tamil Nadu and Kerala.


Kanchipuram was known in early   Tamil   literature as   Kachi   or   Kachipedu   but was later   sanskritized   to   Kanchi   or   Kanchipuram . According to legend, the name   Kanchi   is derived from   Ka   referring to the Hindu god   Brahma   and   anchi , referring to his worship of Hindu god   Vishnu   at this place.   The earliest inscription from the   Maurya period   (325–185 BCE) denotes the city as   Kanchipuram , where King Visnugopa was defeated by Samudragupta Maurya (320–298 BCE).   Patanjali   (150 BCE or 2nd century BCE) refers to the city in his   Mahabhasya   as   Kanchipuraka .   The city was referred to by various Tamil names like   Kanchi ,   Kanchipedu   and Sanskrit names like   Kanchipuram .The Pallava inscriptions from (250–355) and the inscriptions of the   Chalukya dynasty   refers the city as   Kanchipura .   Jaina Kanchi   refers to the area around Tiruparutti Kundram.During the British rule, the city was known as   Conjeevaram   and later as   Kanchipuram . The municipal administration was renamed   Kancheepuram , while the district retains the name   Kanchipuram .


Please notice the Magical letter ka, mistakenly denoting the god. Kachi pedu is the Ka Aatchi Padu or Paettai or Paattai or Pattu.


Harrappa [];

Harappa is an archaeological site in Punjab, northeast Pakistan, about 24 km (15 mi) west of Sahiwal. The site takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River. The current village of Harappa is 6 km (3.7 mi) from the ancient site. Although modern Harappa has a railway station left from the period of British administration, it is today just a small cross roads town of population 15,000.

The site of the ancient city contains the ruins of a Bronze Age fortified city, which was part of the Cemetery H culture and the Indus Valley Civilization, centered in Sindh and the Punjab. The city is believed to have had as many as 23,500 residents and occupied over 100 hectares (250 acres) at its greatest extent during the Mature Harappan phase (2600–1900 BC), which is considered large for its time.

Harrappa is a pure Tamil word “Orai Appan'. Aran Appan or Ari Appan are other forms of Orai Appan. Orai means the sun and appan means the' lord' or ‘father'. Ravi is the Tamil name Ra+vaa, the sun god.


The Arapaho [](in French: Arapahos, Gens de Vache ) are a tribe of Native Americans historically living on the eastern plains of Colorado and Wyoming. They were close allies of the Cheyenne tribe and loosely aligned with the Sioux. Arapaho is an Algonquian language closely related to Gros Ventre, whose people are seen as an early offshoot of the Arapaho. Blackfoot and Cheyenne are the other Algonquian-speakers on the Plains, but their languages are quite different from Arapaho. By the 1850s, Arapaho bands had coalesced into two tribes: the Northern Arapaho and Southern Arapaho.


The Native Americans name Arapaho is again the corrupted form of the Tamil name, Orai Appan.


Arrapha[] or Arrapkha (Akkadian: Arrap?a, Turkish: Arrapha ) was an ancient city in what today is northeastern Iraq, on the site of the modern city of Kirkuk. It began as a city of the Gutian people, became Hurrian, and was an Assyrian city during most of its occupation.


The city was founded around 2000 BC by Hurrian-related Zagros Mountains–Taurus Mountains dwellers who were known as the Gutian people by lowland-dwellers of Southern Mesopotamia. Arraphkha was the capital of the Guti kingdom (Gutium), which is mentioned in cuneiform records about 2400 BC.

The city reached great prominence in the 11th and 10th centuries BC under Assyrian rule. In 615 BC, seeing the Assyrians occupied with the Babylonians, the Median king Cyaxares successfully invaded Arrapha, which was one of the last strongholds of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The region later became part of Achaemenid Persia. During the Parthian and Sassanid Empire the site was the capital of a small kingdom called " ??????? ", that is Beth Garmai , in Aramaic.

Arrapha is mentioned until Hellenistic times, at which point the settlement was refounded under the name Karka .


The Arrapha city was the capital of Guti kingdom i.e. KO Athee kingdom. Hurrian is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Horaiyan or the Oraiyan and Assyriyan is the Tamil Aa +Sa+ oraiyan. If the interpretation is correct then Hurrians, Ko theeyan and Assyrian were sub sects of Dravidian people. The Median king, Matheeyan king, Cyaxares is the Tamil Sa karan , the red sun ! [x is the k in Tamil]. Iraq is the Tamil Aa +Ra+ ka. Aramaic is the Tamil Aa +Ra +Maa+Ka , Orai ma ka or Meka Orai . The name Karaka [ ka+Ra+ka] is an evidence to say that the old name Arrapha is a Tamil name denoting the sun god ‘ Ra' . Arrapkha is the Tamil Araapakkam or orai pakkam or Urapaakkam .Urapakkam is a town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The Zakros mountain is the Tamil Sa+ka+Ra+am , Sikaram, and the Taurus mountain is the Tamil Thee+ra++an.


Lothal[] is one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus valley civilisation. Located in Bhal region of the modern state of Gujarat and dating from 2400 BCE. Discovered in 1954, Lothal was excavated from 13 February 1955 to 19 May 1960 by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), the official Indian government agency for the preservation of ancient monuments. Lothal's dock—the world's earliest known, connected the city to an ancient course of the Sabarmati river on the trade route between Harappan cities in Sindh and the peninsula of Saurashtra when the surrounding Kutch desert of today was a part of the Arabian Sea. It was a vital and thriving trade centre in ancient times, with its trade of beads, gems and valuable ornaments reaching the far corners of West Asia and Africa. The techniques and tools they pioneered for bead-making and in metallurgy have stood the test of time for over 4000 years.

The meaning of Lothal (a combination of Loth and (s) thal ) in Gujarati to be "the mound of the dead" is not unusual, as the name of the city of Mohenjo-Daro in Sindhi means the same. People in villages neighbouring to Lothal had known of the presence of an ancient town and human remains. As recently as 1850, boats could sail up to the mound. In 1942, timber was shipped from Broach to Saragwala via the mound. A silted creek connecting modern Bholad with Lothal and Saragwala represents the ancient flow channel of a river or creek.


Lothal is the corrupted form of the Tamil name La+ thalam, ss,La+thee+la+am which means the ‘illuminated floor' , the ‘sky'. Pathalam means the underground where the dead had to go. Gujarat is the combination of Ka+sa+Ra+thee. Bhal is the Dravidian Balan or the Babylonian Baal .Sabarmathi is the Tamil sa+ba+Ra+maa+thee and Saurastra is the Tamil Sa+Aa+Ra+sa+thee+ra. The Saragvala is the ‘Sarakku valam', which means ‘the transport of goods'. ‘Sarrakku vallam' means the ships for transporatation of goods.


Dholavira[] is an archaeological site in Bhachau Taluka of Kutch District, in the state of Gujarat in western India, which has taken its name from a modern village 1 km (0.62 mi) south of it. Also known locally as Kotada timba the site contains ruins of an ancient Indus Valley Civilization/Harappan city. It is one of the five largest Harappan sites and most prominent archaeological sites in India belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. It is also considered as grandest of cities of its time. It is located on the Khadir bet island in the Kutch Desert Wildlife Sanctuary in Great Rann of Kutch and the area of the full site is more than 100 ha (250 acres). The site was occupied from c.2650 BCE, declining slowly after about 2100 BCE. It was briefly abandoned and reoccupied until c.1450 BCE.


Dholavira is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Thol Aa orai or Thala Aa Orai , the place of the primordial sun god.


Kalibangan[] is a town located at

on the left or southern banks of the Ghaggar (Ghaggar-Hakra River), identified by some scholars with Sarasvati River in Tehsil Pilibangan, between Suratgarh and Hanumangarh in Hanumangarh district, Rajasthan, India 205 km. from Bikaner. It is also identified as being established in the triangle of land at the confluence of Drishadvathi and Sarasvathi Rivers. The prehistoric and pre-Mauryan character of Indus Valley Civilization was first identified by Luigi Tessitori at this site. Kalibangan's excavation report was published in its entirety in 2003 by the Archaeological Survey of India, 34 years after the completion of excavations. The report concluded that Kalibangan was a major provincial capital of the Indus Valley Civilization. Kalibangan is distinguished by its unique fire altars and "worlds earliest attested ploughed field".


Kalibangan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ka+la+ba ------- ankh+an means the one who has the white body, who is none other than the sun. Kalaba Mayil [peacock] is the white sun god raiding on the sky. Mayil, the word is the combination of ma+Aa+la, which means the Great primordial light, sun. Kalaba Kathalan is the sun god, the lover. ‘Kali pangu' in Tamil also means ‘happiness'.



Iran [] ;


Iran officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Western Asia. The country is bordered on the north by Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, with Kazakhstan and Russia to the north across the Caspian Sea. Iran is bordered on the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, on the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, on the west by Iraq and on the northwest by Turkey.

The name of Iran is the Modern Persian derivative from the Proto-Iranian term Aryana, meaning "Land of the Aryans", first attested in Zoroastrianism's Avesta tradition. The term Eran is found to refer to Iran in a 3rd-century Sassanid inscription, and the Parthian inscription that accompanies it uses the Parthian term "aryan" in reference to Iranians .

Historically Iran has been referred to as "Persia" by the Western world, mainly due to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran Persis (?e?s??), meaning land of the Persians. In 1935 Reza Shah requested that the international community refer to the country as Iran. Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, and in 1959 both names were to be used interchangeably. Today both "Persia" and "Iran" are used interchangeably in cultural contexts; however, "Iran" is the name used officially in political contexts.


The historical and cultural wider usage of "Iran" is not restricted to the modern state proper. Iranshahr or Iranzamin (Greater Iran) corresponded to territories of Iranian cultural or linguistic zones. Besides modern Iran, it included portions of the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, the Indian subcontinent and Central Asia.s


Iran is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Aran. Aran means the ‘snake' and the ‘fort' denoting the lengthy tortuous high mountain range. Aran had it's root from word Oraiyan, the white sun and so Iran means the land of the sun . Aravaan [Aa+Ra+vaan ] is the sun god . The name ‘Aryan' per se was given to the invading nomads by the Dravidians since they were white in complexion. Parthiyan is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Pa+ra+thee+an, the sun of the sky.


Tehran [];

Tehran; Tehran ; is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of about 8,300,000 and about 14 million metropolitan area, it is Iran's largest city and urban area, and one of the largest cities in Western Asia.

In the 20th and 21st centuries, Tehran has been the subject to mass migration of people from all around Iran. The city is home to many historic mosques, churches, synagogues and Zoroastrian fire temples. Contemporary Tehran is a modern city featuring many structures, of which the Azadi (Freedom) Tower and the Milad Tower have come to be symbols of Tehran itself. Tehran is ranked 29th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area. Throughout Iran's history, the capital has been moved many times, and Tehran is the 32nd national capital of Iran although it has been Iran's capital for about 220 years. Persian is spoken by the people and is understandable by roughly 98% of the population. The majority of people in Tehran identify themselves as Persians. In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, Tehran was called Ray (which in the Avesta occurs in the form of Ragha

Tehran is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Thee Karan, the sun. The name ‘ Ray' is the Ra , the sun god and Ragha is nothing but the Ra+ka. If we write as Ka+Ra it will be read as Kara n , the sun god.


The English word Sun ray Is the combination of Sa +an ----the ‘Ra' .


Shiraz [];

Shiraz is the fifth most populous city of   Iran   and the capital of   Fars Province . In 2009 the population of the city was 1,455,073. Shiraz is located in the southwest of Iran on the Roodkhaneye Khoshk (Dry River) seasonal river. It has a moderate climate and has been a regional trade center for over a thousand years. It is regarded as one of the oldest provinces of ancient Persia.




The earliest reference to the city is on Elamite clay tablets dated to 2000 BCE, found in June 1970, while digging to make a kiln for a brick factory in the south western corner of the city. The tablets written in ancient   Elamite   name a city called   Tiraziš . Phonetically, this is interpreted as /tiracis/ or /ciracis/. This name became Old Persian /širajiš/; through regular sound change comes the modern Persian name   Shiraz . The name Shiraz also appears on clay sealings found at a 2nd-century CE   Sassanid   ruin, east of the city. By some of the native writers, the name Shiraz has derived from a son of Tahmuras , the third Shah (King) of the world according to Ferdowsi's Shahnama.


Shiraz is the Tamil sa+Ra+sa. The Elamite name Tirazis is the Tamil Thirai sa , the sun[ sa] of the sky [ thirai] . The king of the world is the sun, Tahmuras, the ‘Thee maran ‘.




Korasan [];

Khorasan , also written as Khurasan , is a historical region lying in the northeast of Persia (Iran) that has been mentioned in various sources in the past. "In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, the term "Khurassan" frequently had a much wider denotation, covering also parts of Central Asia and Afghanistan; early Islamic usage often regarded everywhere east of western Persia, sc. Djibal or what was subsequently termed 'Irak 'Adjami, as being included in a vast and ill-defined region of Khurasan, which might even extend to the Indus Valley and Sind." Before Islamization of the region, the inhabitants of Khorasan had mostly practiced Zoroastrianism, but there were also followers of Buddhism and other religions


The name "Khorasan" is derived from Middle Persian khor (meaning "sun") and asan (or ayan literally meaning "to come" or "coming" or "about to come"), hence meaning "land where the sun rises". [ The Persian word Khavar-zamin, meaning "the eastern land", has also been used as an equivalent term.


Korasan is the corrupted form of the Tamil KO Rasan, the Raja of the sky, the sun, the god -king. Hor is the corrupted Tamil word of Orai , the sun or the Egyptian Horus . Aasaan means the the teacher in Tamil.


Kallar Kahar[ Kahar] is a town and subdivision (Tehsil) of Chakwal District in Punjab, Pakistan. It is also capital of Kallar Kahar Tehsil. It is a tourist destination located 25 kilometres southwest of Chakwal along the motorway. It is notable for its natural gardens, peacocks and a saltwater lake. It is 125 km away from Rawalpindi.

The Katasraj Temple is situated in Choa Saidanshah tehsil (CSS), in 1981 a project was started named as Pak German Project (PGP). There also a degree and college for Mines diploma. There is a cadet college in Kallar Kahar named Cadet College Kallar Kahar, functional since 1998; it produces a variety of professionals, including army cadets, doctors and engineers.

30 miles southwest of Chakwal on the Chakwal-Sargodha road, Kallar Kahar is known for its peacocks, for its freshwater lake, and for the Takht-e-Babri, a flat stage built of stone by emperor Babar to address his army while coming down from Kabul in the quest of the crown of Delhi. During his stay at Kallar Kahar, Babar also planted a garden, which still exists, called the Bagh-e-Safa. In his memoirs, the Tukht-e-Babri , Babar described Kallar Kahar as a " charming place with good air " and natural beauty.


Kallar Kahar is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Kaalan or kallan Ko karan which means the Kalla'n , the time keeper or the kal'lan the lover god . The katasraj temple is the Tamil Ka Aa +thee -- Ra + sa temple. Kala Kaar means the ‘artist' or the ‘scholar' like the sun .



Khar Lake;

Khar-Us Lake (Mongolian: ???-?? ???? , lit. "Black water lake" ) is a lake in western Mongolia in the Great Lakes Depression. It is the upper one in a system of the interconnected lakes: Khar-Us, Khar, Dörgön, Airag and Khyargas.

Khar Lake is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ka orai lake. It means the lake looks like the Ka Orai, the sun.



Makran ) (pronounced [mæk'r??n]) is a semi-desert coastal strip in the south of Sindh and Balochistan, in Pakistan and Iran, along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. The name Makran derives from Maka , borne by an overlapping satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire.


Makaran is the pure Tamil name Ma karan, the great sun. Makan in Tamil means the son. Macron and Micron are the corrupted forms of the Tamil word Ma karan.




Mazandaran Province Ostan-e Mazandaran ) is a Caspian province in the north of Iran. Located on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, it is bordered clockwise by the Golestan, Semnan, Tehran, Alborz, Qazvin, and Gilan provinces. Sari is the largest and the capital city of Mazandaran province.


Mazandran is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ma +sa+an+ra+an which means the great [ ma] red sun [Sae] , Indiran [ Anda Aran] . Anda Aran is the snake of the sky and Anda Oraiyan is the sun of the universe. Rasaendran, Kasaendran, Susaendran and Visayendran are related proper names.
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