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Baa'l, Bali, Kabali, Kabalam, Karabalam and Cannibal 


                       Mahabali     versus Vamana   avatar.


                                               The word  Bali  represents  the  Deva Nagari--Meriotic  proto Dravidian  word  Ka  bali [Lord Siva] or Kabalm-- which  signifies  the skull or head  [in sacrifice] .  Kabali must be a root word for cannibal and cannibalism.


   King   Amani   khabale   was a Nubian king --Period--middle of first century CE.

  [Ref--www.en of _monarchs _ of _Kush]


                                           Well!  The name Bali can be   also pronounced as Pali.  Pali in Tamil means ritual sacrifice [.Pazhi means revenge].  There is one saying in Tamil “palikku pazhi:  rathhathirku rath' um” [blood for blood]. Hence Bali must be an ancient   site where sacrifice [perhaps human sacrifice] for gods and goddesses should have taken place


                                         Bali, Indonesia:  Balinese culture was strongly influenced by Indian, Chinese, and particularly Hindu  culture , beginning around the 1st century AD. The name   Bali dwipa   ("Bali island") has been discovered from various inscriptions, including the Blanjong pillar inscription written by    Sri Kesari  Warmadewa  in 914 AD and mentioning "Wali'dwipa ".{} .


                                       Bali   is in Rethymno     Prefecture on the island of Crete in Greece.     Bali is not named after the Indonesian island. An educated local told that it is from the word "Vali" that means "Prince" This contradicts the Lonely Planet's guide book that says it is from the old Turkish word for "Honey" (Honey was produced there during the Turkish   rule [Ref}


Note:   Note the similarity of the name   Wali'  dwipa   [of Bali island --Indonesia] and the prince, Vali of Crete.


                            Visitors to Bali, Indonesia who have had the opportunity to witness a cremation ceremony will be aware that it is a truly extraordinary pageant. The huge crowd of spectators, the elaborately decorated bamboo pyramid   (bade),  the long procession, the chanting priests   (pedanda),  the music of the   gamelan,  the funeral pyre, all this and more, makes for an extremely colorful spectacle. Today's ceremony, however, traditional though it is in most respects, is no longer identical to that staged in pre-colonial times. The most important difference is that, in the contemporary ceremony, the custom of sacrificing one or more women custom the Balinese called   mesatia (loyalty), 1 has been replaced by the more humane practice of burning a number of straw puppets .[Ref--Human sacrifices in Bali: Sources ,notes  and commentary  by  Alfons Van Der Kraan.]



                          Malayalam:     also known as   Bali   or   Maveli   was a benevolent Asura king and the grandson of Prahlada  in  Indian mythology. The festival of   Onam , celebrated by Malayali Hindus in the southern Indian state of Kerala, and the Government of Kerala declared Onam as the ‘State Festival' of Kerala in 1960, commemorates his yearly homecoming after being sent down to the underworld Sutala by   Vamana   , the fifth  avatar  of Vishnu   .

                          Onam is observed by all Malayalees as the return of the pious Mahabali to Kerala   Colorful aquatic festivals (e.g., boat races) are held on this occasion on the banks of the river Pampa   The celebration occurs all over Kerala and in the Malayalee diasporas   {Ref-}.


Note the similarity  of   the names  ,  Wali'  dwipa   of Bali,   Vali  prince   of  Cretan Bali  and  the  asuran  King of Kerala  Ma  Veli!

              Mahatma Phule's interpretation about Maha Bali:

                             Mahatma Phule, the leader of non-Brahmin movement, interpreted the myth of Bali in the revolutionary manner. The story prevalent in the Brahminical tradition revers Vamana as incarnation of Vishnu, who pushed Bali to the nether-world. Phule, on the other hand, celebrated Bali as the king of the people, peasants or original inhabitants of India (as opposed to Aryan Brahmins, who came to India from Iran, in accordance with the Orientalist theories prevalent in that period). Thus, in Phule's interpretation, Vamana became the symbol of Aryans/ Brahmins, who enslaved and exploited indigenous people, symbolized by Bali. He based his argument on the fact that on the day of Diwali and Dasara, women in Maharashtra say, "may the misery and agony go away, may the kingdom of Bali be established". Phule also calls India as Balisthan, naming it after Bali .[]


                             Baal   is the name of several pagan    gods  that date back to the 14th century BC among the ancient  Semitic  peoples, and most specifically the fertility deity of the ancient Canaanite  peoples . The cult of Baal celebrated annually his death and resurrection as a part of the Canaanite fertility rituals and involved   human sacrifices and temple prostitution   the worship of Baal often led the Israelites astray from God  due  to the carnal pleasures derived from temple prostitutes.

                          As the sun-god, Baal was worshipped under two aspects, beneficent and destructive. On the one hand he gave light and warmth to his worshippers; on the other hand the fierce heats of summer destroyed the vegetation he had himself brought into being. Hence,   human victims were   sacrificed to him   in order to appease his anger in time of plague or other trouble, the victim being usually the first-born of the sacrifice and being   burnt alive . In the    Old Testament this  is euphemistically termed "passing" the victim "through the fire". The forms under which Baal was worshipped were necessarily as numerous as the communities which worshipped him. Each locality had its own Baal or divine "lord" who frequently took his name from the city or place to which he belonged; i.e. Baal-Zur, "Baal of Tyre"; Baal-hermon, "Baal of Hermon" ; Baal-Lebanon, "Baal of Lebanon"; Baal-Tarz, "Baal of Tarsus." At other times the title was attached to the name of an individual god, such as Bel-Merodach ("the Lord Merodach" or "Bel is Merodach") at Babylon, Baal-Melkarth at Tyre, and Baal-gad  in the north of Palestine. Occasionally the second element was noun as in Baal-Shemaim, "lord of heaven," Baalzebub (2 Kings 1:2), "lord of flies," Baal-Hamman, usually interpreted "lord of heat," but more probably "lord of the sunpillar," the tutelary deity of Carthage. All these various forms of the sun-god were collectively known as the   Baalim   or "Baals" who took their place by the side   of the female Ashtaroth and Ashtrim. At   Carthage   the female consort of Baal was termed   Pene-Baal , "the face" or "reflection of Baal ."  [].


                 Note:      In Tamil language, Pene Baal of Carthage can be called as Pen Pal, which means female Gender.     Male gender is called as Aan pal .   If Ball is the god, the sexual   secretions   of men are called as   Aan pal i.e.  Milk of   men  namely  the semen .  If  the  female consort of  Ball was termed as   Pene Ball[as in Carthage]  , the  sexual secretions  of  women  is called as  Pen Pal  i.e. Milk of  women namely Mother's milk [pal also denotes  Milk in Tamil] . 



         Baa'l  god  was  a sun god  as well as a fertility god   as  lord Siva ,Kabali   who  was  offered  human sacrifices.

               Sacrifice   was a religious activity in Maya Culture, involving either the Killing of animals   or the bloodletting   by members of the community, in  rituals  superintended by priests. Sacrifice has been a feature of almost all pre-modern societies at some stage of their development and for broadly the same reason: to propitiate or fulfill a perceived obligation towards the  gods .


                     Ritualized bloodletting     was usually performed in public by religious or political leaders piercing a soft body part, most commonly the tongue, ear   or  foreskin , and collecting the  blood  to smear directly on the  idol  or collecting it on paper, which was then burned.    In what is today Nicaragua, the blood was smeared on  maize , distributed to the people and baked into sacred bread. The blood could also be collected from the non-elite, often from the foreskins of youths, or from high-ranking  women .

                                      The site of collection was of obvious ritual significance. Joralemon notes it is "virtually certain" that blood from thepenis   and the vagina were the most sacred and had "extraordinary   Fertilizing  power " and that such rituals were essential for the regeneration     of the natural world, particularly cultivated  plants.   In one dramatic variant men and women "gathered in the temple in a line, and each made a pierced hole though the member, across from side to side, and then passed through as great a quantity of cord as they could stand; and thus all together fastened and strung together, they anointed the statue of the  demon  [the Spanish original says "Ba'al"]  with the collected   blood." But auto-sacrifice could also be an everyday event, with those passing by an idol   anointing it with blood drawn on the spot as a sign of piety [ [].

  Note:  The demon god for which sacrifice was done in Mayan culture was called as  Ba'al.


              Look at  the similarity  of  calling   Indonesian  Bali  as  “Wali”  dwipa ,   the root  word  Vali[prince]  for the  Cretan   Bali  and the  Dravidian King's  name  Ma veli . Vali means “to have a long life” or “long live” in Tamil.  That  means   a  person   was  sacrificed   so that  the  other community  members  would have a long   prosperous  life   and  at the  same time, the  sacrificed person would  live   eternally  in the hearts of  the community members.  It seems    that a   great prince [Greek Cretan vali][Indian  king  Maaveli]  was   sacrificed   in the ancient past I.e.  a  Maha pali  was done  [great  sacrifice].  The place where Maha Pali took place would have been later called as Maha Bali  and in due course  Maha bali  per se,  became the name of the king   Maha veli.    


Balim [Baleim] of Papua New Guinea;

                  The   Baliem Valley , also spelled   Balim Valley   and sometimes known as the   Grand Valley , of the highlands of    western New Papua,  is occupied by the Dani people. The main town in the valley is   Wamena . The valley is about 80 km in length by 20 km in width and lies at an altitude of about 1,600-1,700  Wamena   is the capital town of the Jeya Vijaya Regency of Indonesia   of. It is the largest town   in Indonesian Papua highlands, in the Baleim valley   and has a population of around 10,000. Wamena is the urban centre of a rural area housing West Papua's highest concentration of population, with over 300 000 people inhabiting the Baliem Valley and surrounding areas. These people belong to a number of related ethnic groups, the most prominent of which are referred to as  Dani, Lani  and  Yali.


 Note:   Balim Valley is called as the Grand valley   i.e.  Maha valley.  The name of the town Wamena   is   very    much similar to   the Brahmin dwarf's name Vamana [Vishnu's avatar]. 

                             Danis are the most decorative tribes in the west Papua. Dani men wear long and thin Kotekas and have boar tusks in their noses and their headdresses are made up of paradise bird's feathers.  The Dani women wear short skirts woven from orchid fibers, decorated with straw and with indispensible woven bags called “noken” across their backs. They were the most dreaded head-hunting tribe on the Island , but  they did not  eat  their  enemies , like the majority of the other Papuan tribes did.Dani build round or  oval huts  and their  villages are  enclosed by fences. They are farmers and their small fields are distinctly bordered.

                              Lanis inhabit a smaller part of Baliem valley because their main territory is in the mountains southeast of Wamena. Lani men were thick kotekas which serve as a case for tobacco and other valuables. The women wear short skirts made up of grass as well as the indispensable bags across their backs. Men sometimes wear hairnets which they color in black. The rest of the decoration is done by using bird feathers, especially of paradise birds.


        Note; the koteke is phonetically similar to the Tamil Word Kottakai   which means   a “cover over the open top}    


       Papua Yali tribe [the tree people] belonged to the   most dreaded cannibals   of the western part of the New Guinea Island.  i.e. Irian Jaya.They  are  ranked among  the pygmy  group of  nations[dwarf nations] , and  more precisely among    pygmy  negritos. The mature men are scarcely taller than 150cms.


                       The reason why, Papua Yalis were particularly dreaded, was because they totally destroyed their enemies.  They did not only eat  the body , but  they allegedly  grinded  the bones  to dust  which was then thrown in  to the  valley. They did all this to prevent the victim from never returning .   People from the neighboring villages are not only killed for revenge, sometimes just for meat.



                   Asmat is the most famous cannibalistic tribe in Papua. The would keep human skulls under their heads as a pillow.   They would eat the brains of their   enemies   , animals mixed with sago worms   straight from their halved skulls. Asmat did not only hunt for skulls, but they also worshipped them.


Note:  In Kerala, the brain is called as “thalai sorru”.  Thalai means head and ‘sorru ‘means the staple food of that place, namely boiled rice.


  Korawai and Komabai are   also cannibalistic tribes .They live  in the basin of the Brazza River in the vast  lowland jungles. Mosquitoes and age old   rivalry forced   them to   build   houses in the tops of the trees. The Men of these tribes do not   wear koteka .  Instead they have their penises pushed in to the scrotum and on the skin which sticks   out;   they have tightly tied a green leaf. The women wear short skirts made of sago palm phloem, which is also their main food. Kombais are the most beautiful tribe people of Papua. Their menacing look   is intensified   by long necklaces   made of   dog teeth , and they rarely lay their bows and arrows aside. The heads of the arrows are often made of bones.  The bone headed arrow s are   exclusively for hunting people.   [].

Note: The tribal name   Korowai is   very   much similar to the Koravan tribal people of Tamil Nadu ,  Kerala and Srilanka  .


                       Kuravans form the sixth largest Scheduled Caste population in Tamil Nadu state And other states in South India are Kerala, Andhra and Karnataka. Many Kuravans live near the Idukki Arch Dam [Kerala] which is the world's second and Asia's first arch dam, constructed across the Kuravan and Kurathi hills. The dam lies close to the Cheruthoni barrage and to its west is the Kalamavu dam   .Basically Kuravans are Tribals. Kuravan's other names are Sidhanar, Malai Kuravan, Vedar and Veduvar. Kuravan names may be called as Sidhanar for social status because other community pupils not respect to name of Kuravan. Legend says the god Murugan married the daughter (Valli) of Kuravan, a tribal leader (Nambirajan) from the mountains. Kuravan community was mentioned in familiar Tamil literatures like Silappathikaram, Kuttrala kuravanchi, Agathiam, Tholgappiam and Thirumurugatruppadai.    They make certain household items out of bamboos and palm leafs and sells them to earn their living. They hunt birds and raise country pigs (black pigs) both for their consumption and sale. They also hunt cats from the village for consumption. Some of them work as fortune-tellers. Since they use the trained Kili (parrot) to predict the fortune of the people, they are also known as kili josiyars [ ]

                           They are also known as Malai Kuruvans, Kuravans, Thalaiyaris, Kavalkara koravars, uppu koravars, Dabi Koravars(simbu koravars), Gandarvakottai Koravars, Inji Koravars, Koravars, Kalinji Dabikoravars, Kala Koravars, Monda Koravars, karuvapillai koravars, Thogamalai koravars, mel nadu and kel nadu koravars, Kathukuthi koravars, Pachai kuthi Koravars, sidanars, Kurumans, Kattu Naicker, panikers, vedars, vettuvars,  [ ]. 

Kuravan Kottai   is a small village in Madhanur Taluk in Vellore District in Tamil Nadu state.   Velliankattu Pudur or also people called as Kuravan (m) Palayam   are a remote village in Tamil Nadu, India .  It is situated nearer to   Gobichettipalayam.

Kuravan is also place in Faizabad District of Uthar Pradesh in India.


          There is another Meaning   for the   word Kuravan [kuravar--pleural ] in Tamil.  Kuravan means [different  pronunciation  from  that of  tribal  Kuravan ,  as  in samayak kuravan].Ie.   elderly respectable person, Moothon,  a priest,  king,  father of all. [Ref--]   Naturally the kuravan tribal people [hunters -gatherers ] are the elderly fathers of all.


Kore   (plural korai) is the name given to a type of  ancient Greek sculpture of the archaic period.

There are multiple theories on who they represent, and as to whether they represent mortals or deities. One theory is that they represent Persephone, the daughter in the triad of the Mother Goddess cults or Athena or votary figures to attend the maiden goddess.

 Kouroi   are the youthful male equivalent of Kore statues. They both show the restrained " archaic smile ", but — unlike the nude kouroi — korai are depicted in thick drapery, ornate,   very colorful and often have elaborate braided hair dress.


  A   kouros   (plural   kouroi , )  is the modern term       given to those representations of male youths which first appear in the archaic period [600BCE]in Greece. The term   kouros , meaning (male)   youth , was previously thought to be depictions of Apollo.  Some others say Kouroi   are burial markers.



                                                     It seems that   the Greek Kovros   is the representation of     kuravan   of South East Asia and Tamil Nadu India, and it is a form of forefather worship [Kuravan--father of all---the nude,   fore fathers].


Kombai   is  also  hill in  Udagamandalam  valley of  Tamil Nadu  which is about  1707 Mts in height  , to the east of  Devashola.

Paaiyan combai, koravanKandi, Muthamankombai. Kadamankombai are the few Tribal settlements in Karamadai range of Coimbatore forest division in TamilNadu, India.


  Kombai   is  a Panchayat town in  Theni  District  in  the  Indian State of TamilNadu. It is known for cardamom   , which it exports. It is also a producer of tamarind   and   coconut.  Kombai is also well known for the   breed of Dog"KOMBAI " which is trained used for hunting purpose.


Patchai Malai    is a  hill range  just 80 kilometers  north of  Trichirappalli, TamilNadu.The mountain range  has  different  small regions  like Thenpuranadu[south],   Kombai nadu [western area],Aathinadu and vannadu.



Note:  cannibalism  and  ritual sacrifice  i.e. pali or Bali  are  related  behaviors  in  the  cultural life of these people.


Etymology of the word Cannibalism :   


                  1 The word 'cannibal' is derived from the Spanish word "Caníbalis". Though there are many thoughts on the specific origin of this word, the most popular seems to be that of a story surrounding explorer Christopher Columbus. Apparently, Columbus visited the areas of Cuba and Haiti where he witnessed a group of tribal warriors that ate human flesh. The act of actually eating human flesh by these tribes was never confirmed however.  

The actual origin of the word can be broken down to the word "Carib", which was the name of the actual peoples living in the area, and which is likely the derivative of the area known today as The Caribbean .[ /Q/what is the origin of the word cannibal]

                 2    Consider the following quote from The Two Babylon's, by Alexander Hislop, page 232: “And it was a principle of the Mosaic law, a principle no doubt derived from the patriarchal faith, that the priest must partake of whatever was offered as a sin-offering . Hence, the priests were necessarily required to eat of the human sacrifices; and thus it has come to pass that ‘Cahna-Bal,' the ‘Priest of Baal,' is the established word in our own tongue for the devourer of human flesh . [] [Solving the Mystery of Babylon the Great--by   Edward Hendrie].

                                   This practice has its roots in a prime function of all priests of Baal. Keep in mind that the Hebrew word for priest is Cahn.  

    Note:       Since      the Canaanites' were   the ardent worshippers of Ball god  the “   Canni “  of  the word  cannibal   would  represent  the people of  Canaan .     

               It seems for me,   Kabali must be a root word for the ball of the word   cannibal and cannibalism .

   Etymology of the word Kabalam ; 1.  Kara  bowl means bowl in the hands [Kara  or kai ] used  for begging or ritual tantric use and   eating  or drinking[  Kara or Kai=I  hands   in Tamil: palam =vessel/plate/sheet pieces ] as in  Thambalam  [  large circular disc like  plate in Tamil;[Related word of Thambalam is Thamboolam ,  Thanga palam  [golden sheet or plate] in Tamil and Tympanum in English  as the Thambalam  falls  down  it  will make a  vibrating  noise ].


Kara balam;

Hands and the head symbolism; whenever a person is under stress  , he keeps his hands holding his head . It is a phylogenetic behavior of fear over sacrifice or decapitation. “Thalayi kai vaithu sollu”;  yaen thalaiyil kai vaithu utkanrthu erukkan avan” are  the terms  commonly used in Tamil culture. 

Laying of hands on the head:  One of the primary symbols in the liturgy is the ‘laying on of hands'. From ancient times, to impose hands on someone or to extend one's hand over the person's head was the sign of calling down the Holy Spirit  [].

 2 .    Ka+ Palam= Kabalam or Kapalam where Ka = to gain [the food or the brain] and palam =plate. Usually kapalam is called as Mandai o'du in Tamil where mandai [leaning over the mun --the soil or land ]  means head  and o'du  means  shell.

3 . Kal+ palam= kalpalam ………..kapalam where ‘kal' means lime stone [like] in Tamil and palam means plate.    Thangapalam means golden sheet or plate.

                          Kara pala[m]    of Tamil Language   would have become latter as Canni ball in Canaan.  Alternatively     Kala  pali   [  the place where  sacrifice is  being  done    or   Kanni pali [  Kanni--virgin--sacrifice of a  virgin]  could  have been the  root words  for  Cannibalism.


       Oryoki:       An Oryoki set consists of nested bowls called a   jihatsu , usually made of lacquered  wood , and utensils all wrapped in a cloth and tied with a topknot resembling a lotus flower. This is the formal style of serving and eating meals practiced in Zen   temples wooden oryoki sets of today are like those developed in the monastic community of Hui Neng .  The largest bowl, sometimes called   the Buddha Bowl or Zuhatsu symbolizes Buddha's  head   and his wisdom.[]


       Skull cup   is a drinking vessel or eating bowl made from an inverted human  calveria  that has been cut away from the rest of the skull. The use of a human skull     as a drinking cup   in ritual use or as a trophy is reported in numerous sources throughout history and among various peoples, and among Western cultures is most often associated with the historically nomadic cultures of the Eurasian Steppe .[].



                 Many  Tibetan  deities and dignitaries , including several  Dharmasala's ,Dakins  and Mahasiddhas  , are depicted as  carrying  a  cup made  from the upper part of a human  skull. In some cases they are simply carried either empty or filled with blood for drinking by the deity.  Skull Cups are also shown with the other Hindu deities like Durga, Kali and Siva  []   wit


                              Human skulls have been made into macabre cups and bowls for thousands of years. For instance, in the fifth century B.C., ancient    Greek historian portrayed  the Scythians as people who drank from the skulls of their enemies, and similar traditions have been described by the ancient Chinese historian Sima Qian sometime in the first or second centuries B.C   



   Pygmy:    Pygmy   is a term used for various  ethnic groups    worldwide whose average height is unusually short; anthropologists     define pygmy as any group whose adult men grow to less than 150 cm (59 inches) in average height [ .      A member of a slightly taller group is termed "pygmoid."   The best known pygmies are the Aka, Efe and Mbuti of Central   Africa .  There are also pygmies in Australia Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea   , and Brazil.    The term also includes the    Negritos  of Southeast Asia   .



                                Negritos in Southeast Asia  including  the Batak   and    Aeta  of the    Philippines , the  Anthamanese  of the  Andaman Islands , and the Semeng   of the Malay Peninsula are sometimes called pygmies (especially in older literature).

                 The remains of at least 25 miniature humans, who lived between 1,000 and 3,000 years ago, were recently (as of 2011) found on the islands of Palau   in Micronesia . Their origin and the route of their migration to Asia is still a matter of great speculation. They are genetically distant from Africans, [   and have been shown to have separated early from Asians, suggesting that they are either surviving descendants of settlers from the early    out of Africans  of the    Great   Coastal Migration  of the   Proto -Australoids , or that they are descendants of one of the founder populations of modern humans. The people from Rampassa  village  of    Flores , Indonesia  are  short-statured without being dark-skinned . [en].


                         There is a   town called Wamana in Mopti of   African republic   of Mali.   It is alleged that Human sacrifice is still in vogue in Mali   Kapala   is a small    town  and  commune  in the Circle of Kouthiala   in the sikasso region      of southern  Mali . There is also place called   singpur wamanan in, Sahar Mandal in Auraiya District in Uthar Pradesh, North India.


                           Note:  The pygmy people can be called as Vamanan or Wamana,   as vamanan means dwarf in Sanskrit.  These pygmy people can be called as   Ganas.  Gana   means “small” in Tamil. Ganas are attenders  of lord Siva  as  these  pygmy cannibals like  Yali tribe  eat  food  from the  skull like that of  Lord Siva   who is then called as , called  as  Kabali  or  Kabaleeswaran  and the ganas  are called as  Siva ganas.  The word cephalous [skull] is originated from the word Kabaloe or Kabalam of Deva Nagari/Sanskrit/Protodravidian]. The origin of the    English word” Bowl” is also from the word Kabalam [Kabole]!



                  Going  through  all  the above said  literatures   it is   clear that  Maha vali,  the  great  king or  the prince  was killed  by  a  pygmy  Gana  or a  vamanan  in an encounter  in the ancient  past.  Where did the encounter take place?  Was it during an expedition of king MahaBali of southern India   to Bali?    Was   it    a  gana  or  a  cannibalistic/  head hunter  pygmy ,   a,  Wamanan   of  Bali    killed  him?  Or was it  a  Pygmy  of   the ancient  Indian  subcontinent   who  had   killed  Maha Bali  for  a ritual  sacrifice?   Remember  Siva  Ganas [wamanan] were  Siva worshippers   and   there   was always rivalry  between  Dravidian   Siva  worshippers  and the  Vedic   Brahamincal  Vishnu  worshippers  in  the ancient past.  If so why a   Siva   Gana, {Sanskrit-Vamanan}   killed Maha veli?  Maha veli or Bali ---who was he?!  Was  he  a  Siva  worshipper  or  a  Vishnu  worshipper ?.  Was he the Lord Siva Himself?    The Ka Bali!  Kabaleeswaran !  Or, was he the symbolic representation of Saivite people and their Philosophy?



                              Bhikshatana   ( Sanskrit:   Pichai Nathan--Tamil ; literally, "wandering about for alms, mendicancy) or   Bhikshatana-murti   is an aspect of the Hindu god Siva     as the "Supreme   Mendicant  "   or the "Supreme Beggar"   Bhikshtana is depicted as a nude four-armed man adorned with ornaments who holds a begging bowl in his hand and is followed by demonic attendants and love-sick women.

Bhikshatana is considered a gentler form of Shiva's fierce aspect Bhairava   and a gentle phase between Bhairava's two gruesome forms, one of which decapitates the god  Brahmana  and the other of which murders the god  Vishnu's  gatekeeper  Bhikshatana  is the form of Bhairava that Shiva assumes to atone for his sin of severing Brahma's fifth head. He wanders the universe in the form of a naked Kaplai     mendicant, begging for alms with Brahma's  Kapala  (skullcap) as his begging bowl, until his sin is expiated upon reaching the holy city of  Varanasi.

Bhikshatana is a popular icon in South India, in contrast to North India, where it is of lesser importance. Though Bhikshatana does not have any temples dedicated to him as the primary deity, he is sculpted in stone temple walls, worshipped as a subsidiary deity, and cast in bronze as a temple festival processional icon in almost every major  Tamil  Shiva temple. Many  Tamil language  hymns sing of Bhikshatana's wanderings, often narrating of the pining of the love-smitten who are enamored   of him .[]

                          Kapala and Kalamukha Sects

The Kapalas and Kalamukhas are two distinct sects though they were often confused with one another. According to Ramanuja the Kapalikas (members of Kapala sect) maintained that a man who was advanced in their doctrine could attain the highest bliss by concentrating his mind on the soul seated on the female organ. They worshipped Bhairava the great God and attributed great virtue and occult powers to drinking wine and eating disgusting substances as food. They performed human sacrifices and believed that by the practice of Yoga they could achieve miraculous powers of speedy movement. The Kalamukhas held that happiness in this world and salvation in the next could be attained by such practices as (1) eating food in a human skull (2) besmearing the body with the ashes of the dead and also eating those ashes (3) worshipping the God as seated in a pot of wine and (4) holding a club. Men of other castes could become Brahmanas by performance of certain rites and one who under took the vow of a kapala became a holy saint.

The religious devotion of these outlandish sects was reserved for the horrid God Bhairava with his wife Chandika wearing a garland of human skull and requiring human sacrifices and offering of wine for his propitiation.

They must have been in vogue from fairly early times and their origin may be traced to the terrible form and conception of Rudra. What is however significant is their philosophical aspects of Saivism.     [www.]


                                The Kapalika tradition was a non- Puranic ,tantric   form of   Shai vism  in India   whose members wrote the   Bhairava Tantras , including the subdivision called the   Kaula Tantras. These groups are generally known as Kapalikas, the "skull-men," so called because, like the Lakula Pasupata, they carried a skull-topped staff ( Khatvanga) and cranium begging  bowel   Unlike the respectable Brahmin householder of the   Shaiva Siddhanta , the Kapalika ascetic imitated his ferocious deity, and covered himself in the ashes from the cremation ground, and propitiated his gods with the impure substances of blood, meat, alcohol, and sexual fluids from intercourse unconstrained by caste restrictions   The Kapalikas thus flaunted impurity rules and went against Vedic injunctions   The aim was power through evoking deities, especially goddesses.

The kapalikas may also have been related to the  Kalamuka  ("black faces") of medieval South India (Lorenzen 1972). Moreover, in modern  TamilNadu , certain   Shaivite  cults associated with the goddess   Angala Parameswari , Irulappasami, and Sudalai Madan, are known to practice or have practiced    ritual cannibalism , and to center their secretive rituals around an object known as a   kapparai   (Tamil "skull-bowl," derived from the Sanskrit   kapala ), a votive device garlanded with flowers and sometimes adorned with faces, which is understood to represent the begging-bowl of Shiva (Meyer 1986 ).[www.en].


  Note;   The word  Kabali  is  a  Meriotic  or Deva Nagari [protoDravidian  /Nubian word. word The word koppari is not from the Sanskrit word Kapalam  as  given above. Koppoari is a Tamil word per se; for ex;   kopparai thaengaai [coconut]. The   root word for the English word “Cup “is from the Tamil word koppari.  Kappu + arai = kopparai.  Kappu --means to protect [the shell protecting the kernel]   and  arai means  space or room.  Symbolically  coconut  or  Thangaai is   the skull   as  the  skull  is similar to the coconut  in having  the  outer  shell  and the inner  kernel , the brain. This is the reason   behind, Indians   offering coconuts to their gods [symbolic sacrifice].


                        The "Naramundo Khela" (Skull Game) is a ritual that appears only to take place in the village of Sona Palasi. It is dedicated to Lord Shiva, a Hindu deity who is depicted by a snake around his neck, and marks the start of the Bengali New Year on April 15.

As part of the festival, some villagers carrying skulls and daggers danced to rhythmic drum beats with their bodies covered with white ash and spotted with red and green paints as around 2,000 other people watched.

One villager danced with the corpse of a baby .[]



                                             Vamana and   Maha Bali

                                          The legend   of   Bahavatha       has it that the Vamana avatar was taken by Vishnu to restore Indra's     authority over the heavens, which was   taken away by Mahabali,   a benevolent  Asura king . Bali  was  the grandson of     Prahlada , the son of Hiranyakshipu. Vamana, in the guise of a   short Brahman to   live in. Given a promise of three steps of land by King  Mahabali  against the warning given by his Guru  Sukracharya , Vamana, The Supreme God enlarged himself to such dimensions as to stride over the three worlds. He had grown so huge that he could step from heaven to earth, and earth to the lower worlds in two simple steps. King Mahabali ,  unable to fulfill the promise of three paces of land to the Supreme God, offers his head for the third step. Thus Vamana places his foot on King Mahabali's head and gives him immortality for his benevolence. Being worshipped however by Mahabali and his ancestor Prahláda, he conceded to them the sovereignty of  Patala  (netherworld).



                        Vamana taught King Mahabali that arrogance and pride should be abandoned if any advancement in life is to be made, and that wealth should never be taken for granted since it can so easily be taken away. Vamana then took on the form o Mahavishnu  and  was pleased by King Mahabali's determination and ability to keep his promise, despite his spiritual master's curse and the prospect of losing all his wealth.   Vishnu  named the King   Mahabali   since he was a Mahatma   (great soul). He allowed Mahabali to return to the spiritual sky toassociate with Prahalada (the demoniac Hiranyakashipu's pious son) and other divine beings. Mahavishnu also declared that Mahabali would be able to rule the universe in the following Yuga (age). Mahabali was the grandson of   Prahlada , being the son of Prahlada's son Virochana    who was killed in a battle with the Devas.

                    Mahabali is supposed to return every year to the land of his people, to ensure that they are prosperous.



                 Folk song about Maveli says "Maveli nadu vaneedum kalam, manushyarellarum onnu pole". The song says that all people were equal when Maveli ruled.

                                    The story goes that the beautiful state of  Kerala   was the capital of the  Asura     (demon) king,  Bali.   However, he was very religious, was respectful to priests   and performed Vedic   Aswamedha ritual to enlarge   his kingdom and like his grandfather [Prahalada]), was one of the greatest devotees of Lord    Vishnu  on Earth as he sacrificed his kingdom for the Lord. The King was greatly respected in his kingdom and was considered to be wise, judicious and extremely generous. It is said that Kerala witnessed its golden era in the reign of King Bali. Everybody was happy in the kingdom; there was no discrimination on the basis of caste or class. There was neither crime, nor corruption. People did not even lock their doors, as there were no thieves in that kingdom. There was no poverty, sorrow or disease in the reign of King Bali and everybody  was  happy and content. Banan was the only son of Bali.

Note:  If Maha Bali or Maha Vali was a devotee of Vishnu, why did Lord Vishnu   kill him in a cunning way?! 

Note: Aswamedha ritual is an Aaryan ritual.


                         However, because he was a  Daitya  (descendant of Diti}, he was viewed by the Devas      as unsafe. Otherwise, as the Vamana Purana reads, the rule of Mahabali was righteous.  


  Note;   Just  because  Bali  was an  Asuran  [ asuran-black  Dravidian,  Suran--  white  Aaryan]  , he was killed  by the Aaryan  Devas.   Asuran  clan  people were  Dravidian Siva  worshippers,  while,  Suran  [Devas ] were  Aariyan Vishnu  worshippers.  Asuran Dravidians are Shorter than the Suran Aaryan Devas.  Hence Vamanan could not be a Brahmin.


  Note:    The Skanda Purana, a Saivite text also reads that   Bali worships Shiva   everyday .


                            According to the   Brahma-Vaivarta Puranam , it was Lord Vishnu who positioned Bali in power to curb the pride of Indra.  


                            The    Bahavatha Purana  reads "He ( Vishnu) will take the kingdom away from Purandara ( Lord Indra]) and give it to Bali Maharaja.


  Note:    These versions are in contradiction to the ideas   as told in Bahavatha. 

                             Tulsidas' Ramacharitmanas   declares that Vamana became the    Dvarapala  ( gate-keeper ) of Bali.


                  Some traditions also hold that Vamana was an avatar of Ganesha.


       Note”   If it is  so    Vamana  is  not  the Avathar of  Lord Vishnu ! Is it  so ?I


                            According to the   Adhyatma Ramayana  It is also said that Vamana is the guard of the gate of Bali's underworld realm    Sutala  and will remain so forever.


Note  :   The    gate  keeper  post   of  Pathala    is  usually   held by   a  demon  or  an  asuran   or  by a  Siva gana   only  and   a  Brahamin  Vamanan   could not   become  a  gate  keeper   even though  he was  short  in build..


                           The word  Ga?a  in Sanskrit   means "flock, troop, multitude, number, tribe, series, and class" (Monier Williams's dictionary). It can also be used to refer to a "body of attendants" and can refer to "a company, any assemblage or association of men formed for the attainment of the same aims"  

                            In Hinduism, the   Ga?as are   attendants of  Siva  and live in Kailas am.  Ganesha    was chosen as their leader by Shiva, hence Ganesha's title   ga?a-pati , "lord of the  ga?as.

                     The word "gana" can also refer to councils or assemblies convened to discuss matters of religion or other topics.


                     In Hinduism, the gana or bhutagana are attendants of Shiva that reside in chthonic and luminal locations such as cemeteries and charnel grounds . The Buthagana also attend to Shiva on Mount Kailasam. The story of creation of     Virabhadra  from the Shiva's lock and destruction of Daksha by Virabadra      and his ganas is a popular myth.

Note:  In charnel grounds the bowl used by the Butha ganas was the Kabalam.



                   Ganas in Shanti Parva


                   A detailed analysis has been done about ganas in chapter 108 of    shanthi Parva  in which    Yudhisthira    asks   Bhimsa   about the ganas that how ganas increase, how they defend themselves from the dividing-policy of enemies, what are the techniques to conquer enemies and making the ganas friends, how they hide their secret mantras being in majority. The Bhisma's answers to these questions have been recorded in the form of    shlokas  in Shanti Parva.

Ganas in Vedas

                           Ganas have been narrated in    Vedas  in the form of assemblies of warriors as is clear from the following suthras of Rid Veda   

                          Gana in brief means an assembly. Ganatantra (republic) means a state run by assemblies.

                           The representative members of clans were known as ganas and their assembly as  Sanghas , there chief as gana adipathi     or Ganesha and Ganapathi.

                           During Buddhist period, the Buddhist books like Pali -pitaka', Malihamnikaya, Mahabagga, Avadana shataka',   have mentioned ganas and sanghas many times. During Buddha's period there were 116 republics or ganasanghas in India.


                                         The word   dwarf   appears in numerous forms in the old languages of Europe: In Middle Dutch is is   dwerch,   in contemporary Dutch it appears as   dwerg;   in Old High German it is   twerg,   while in Middle High German it is   dwerch   or   dwarch.   And in Old Frisian it appears as   dwirg.   The contemporary English spelling comes from the Old English   dweorg   or   dweorh

                                         The plural form,   dwarfs,   has been traced to the seventeenth century. The alternate plural,   dwarves,   has been recorded in the early eighteenth century, but was not generally accepted until used by philologist  J.R.R Tolkien  in his fantasy novel,   The Hobbit.   Neither is the historical plural: "dwarf" was pluralized   dwarrow   in Anglo-Saxon   although   dwarrow   has passed from the language, both "dwarfs" and "dwarves" are in current use. Many grammarians prefer "dwarfs," many fantasies prefer "dwarves." The form "dwarfs" is generally used for human beings affected by dwarfism; the form "dwarves" is used for the mythical people described by Tolkien and other authors.


                                      The word   Dwarf must be from the word Thuvara b[p]alagan or Dwara b[p]alaga.  Thuvaram means a small hole in Tamil.   The thuvaram   leads to the Thal varam or the   nether world of Pathalam [parantha   thalam--big floor] with its 7 realms.   Hence   the gate keepers of   thuvaram to   the underworld    were small in size   and they were the Asura Siva Ganas.  The  word  thuvara  palagan [ small-  child  like  size ] [palagan  means  child of “ breast  milk  taking  age”   [ Pal  --milk  --agan  --boy  child]    [agavai --age ] .  Hence the thuvara [small]   of    thuvara palagan [Tamil] or Dwara balagan [Sanskrit] should be the root word for the English word   Dwarf.  Original meaning of thuvaram in Tamil means small sized hole.   Thuvara palagan means a small sized boy, the gate keeper.



          To put  together,  The  mighty   King  Maha Veli  was killed   by the cunning   Brahamins   as  he  was  an [ Dravidian ] asuran  , inspite  of  his  righteous rule.     In fact  Bali  was  only   a Siva  worshipper and so  he was   totally  against   aswamedha   yagam   There  was  no caste systems  in his rule contrary to the expections  of  Brahamins. These   factors irked the  Brahamins   very much.  For  that ,  the  Brahamins   made use of   a  Vamanan ,  a  siva  gana  per se,  as a  paid  cooly. As  Maha bali  , in his palace  


greeted   the  Siva  Gana   , namely the vamana  as usual  as  a  respect of  his lord  Siva  , the  paid killer , head  hunter , Pygmy  Vamanan  had done  his job  quiet  well  to  the  complete  satisfactions  of the  Brahmins.  Actually  King  Maha veli  has  given his  own   head , the cephalous, the Kablam  as  the bowl  for “ Siva “  Himself  to  feed  Him  who had  come  in the disguise of  Siva Gana  , Vamanan.   King  Maha bali was killed  by a   Vamanan  who was   in  disguise  of  Lord Siva !   So cruel ! The  Vamanan , the Brahamanan  is!;  cunning   than  the  head  hunting  pygmy  of  Bali  Island.   Is  was   not just  an act  of  decapitating  Lord Siva [Bikhsatana] by   Vishnu , a  story of  enemity between  Saivites  and  Vainavites  [Dravidians  and Aaryans ]  but then it  was an act of rationalizing   the  real  killing of  a  Asuran king  in the past  by the  cunning  Brhamins  to cheat the  commons. 

                                           Throughout the world   in the prehistoric times, from Bali of South East Asia, to  Mexico , there was only one sun god by name Bali . In between the lands, He was called as Kabali in India and and in Nubia. He was called as Akhenaten, Or Eka Nathan [single or the only god] in Egypt. In Canaan He was worshipped as Baa'l. In Mali of Africa again, He was called as Kapala [place name]. In Bali of Crete He was worshipped as Bali. In Mayan's Mexico, He received human sacrifices as in all other places of his worship and he was named there also as Baa'l.  During the archaic period, Kabali was called as Siva or saeyon in India by the Dravidian people. Seyon was latter called as Zeus in Greece.  Who were those Baal or Kabali worshippers from east to west?!



Figures of 1 Gana, the Dwara palagan 2. Dancing ganas 3 and 4.Kabalam 5.Korawai tribals.6.Korawai man with skull. 7. Kouros.8.south wall, Brihadeswara temple, Thanjavur.9.Vamanan of Sri .Padmavathi Balaji Mandir of Lord Venkatesha, Tehri Gahrwa., Uthranchal.






and digni   taries,

There   for these skull cups, depending on the type of skull used in their   n, on Kombaibeing empty or filled and on the material they are fille


teachings), as being tantric in nature.

When carried by a human adept, the double skull drum (


Throughout the world   in the prehistoric times, from Bali of South East Asia, to  Mexico , there was only one sun god by name Bali . In between the lands, He was called as Kabali in India and and in Nubia. He was called as Akhenaten, Or Eka Nathan [single or the only god] in Egypt. In Canaan He was worshipped as Baa'l. In Mali of Africa again, He was called as Kapala [place name]. In Bali of Crete He was worshipped as Bali. In Mayan's Mexico, He received human sacrifices as in all other places of his worship and he was named there also as Baa'l.  During the archaic period, Kabali was called as Siva or saeyon in India by the Dravidian people. Seyon was latter called as Zeus in Greece.  Who were those Baal or Kabali worshippers from east to west?!

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