+ka+la, the pakalavan [sun-- the day time ] of the sky . It could be the corrupted form of ka ba la ka or kabalika which means the sun god, lord Siva. Gobika, Gopala, Kabila are related proper names. Schmidt's view, shared by most experts, is that Göbekli Tepe is a stone-age mountain sanctuary. Radiocarbon dating as well as comparative, stylistic analysis indicates that it is the oldest religious site found to date. Schmidt believes that what he calls this "cathedral on a hill" was a pilgrimage destination attracting worshipers up to 100 miles (160 km) distant. Butchered bones found in large numbers from local game such as deer, gazelle, pigs, and geese have been identified as refuse from food hunted and cooked or otherwise prepared for congregants. Gobakili Tepe is the Ko ba kala thee ba -m , Teba is the Tamil Theebam which means the lamp. The kala theebam was lit on the top of the mountain so that it was visible from far away distance. The lighting of fire over the top of the mountain is a Dravidian culture as they conytinue to do even now in Thiru Anna malai and Sabarai malai , the places of worship of lord Siva . Black sea[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black sea]; The Black Sea is a sea in south-eastern Europe. It is bounded by Europe, Anatolia and the Caucasus and is ultimately connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Mediterranean and the Aegean Seas and various straits. The Bosphorus Strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, and the Strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean Sea region of the Mediterranean. These waters separate Eastern Europe and western Asia. The Black Sea is also connected to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch. Strabo's Geography reports that in antiquity, the Black Sea was often just called "the Sea" (ho pontos). For the most part, Graeco-Roman tradition refers to the Black Sea as the "Hospitable sea", Euxeinos Pontos (???e???? ???t??). This is a euphemism replacing an earlier "Inhospitable Sea", Pontos Axeinos, first attested in Pindar (c.475 BC). Strabo (7.3.6) thinks that the Black Sea was called "inhospitable" before Greek colonization because it was difficult to navigate, and because its shores were inhabited by savage tribes. The name was changed to "hospitable" after the Milesians had colonized the southern shoreline, the Pontus, making it part of Greek civilization. It is also possible that the name Axeinos arose by popular etymology from a Scythian word axšaina- "unlit", "dark"; the designation "Black Sea" may thus date from Antiquity. A map of Asia dating to 1570, entitled "Asiae Nova Descriptio", from Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, labels the sea Mar Maggior ("Great Sea", cf. Latin mare major). English-language writers of the 18th century often used the name "Euxine Sea" (/'ju?ks?n/ or /'ju?k?sa?n/) to refer to the Black Sea. Black sea is called as ‘Kara Thallasa' in Turky. Kara in Tamil means the dark or black. Thalassa [Greek word for ocean] is the combination of Thee +la +sa. Thalai +sa in Tamil could mean the the moon. ‘Sala [Jala] theebam' is a related word. The Tamil Indian fishermen used to shout ‘Aai la sa'-- -Aai la sa- while rowing their boats. [Aa+ la+ sa or Ilaesa -- Ilaesa] ‘Lae sa' in Tamile mans' gentle'. ‘La sa ‘is the white and illuminating sun or the moon. Lhasa [La+sa] is the name of the place in Thibet , Thee +ba -- thee. The persent meaning of Lhasa is ‘place of the gods'. The original name of Lhasa is' Rasa', Ra +sa. Bodrum [en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bodrum] (Turkish pronunciation: ['bod?um]) is a district and a port city in Mugla Province, in the southwestern Aegean Region of Turkey. It is located on the southern coast of Bodrum Peninsula, at a point that checks the entry into the Gulf of Gökova, and is also the center of the eponymous district. The city was called Halicarnassus of Caria in ancient times and was famous for housing the Mausoleum of Mausolus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Bodrum Castle, built by the Crusaders in the 15th century, overlooks the harbour and the marina. The castle grounds include a Museum of Underwater Archeology and hosts several cultural festivals throughout the year. The name Bodrum derives from Petronium, named from the Hospitaller Castle of St. Peter. The site was formerly known as Halicarnassus. Bodrum is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Boo tharan. Halicarnassus is the corrupted form of the Tamil name ‘ Ozhi Karan Naesan' , the lover of the sun god. Mughab -- Tajikistan; Murghab (Tajik ??????; Russian ??????, from the Persian word ????? meaning "river of the birds") is the capital of Murghob District in the Pamir Mountains of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region, Tajikistan. Murghap is the pure Tamil name Murugappan. Bala Murghab [en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BalaMurugap]; Bala Murghab, also called Morghab, is a village in Badghis Province in north-western Afghanistan. It is the district center for the Murghab District, and home of Forward Operating Base Todd. Bala Murughab is the pure Tamil word Bala Murugappan who is the Dravidian sun god Murugan, Baal of Babylonia. The word Phallus is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Balan or paalan. The suffix ‘an' had become ‘us' in Greek. Balan is the sun god in the sky and he is the phallus in the earth, the Linkam. Arasan - kazakastan; Arasan is a village in the Almaty Province of south-eastern Kazakhstan. Arasan is a pure Tamil word which means the the King. Arasan is the combination of Aa+ Ra+sa+an . The word is a variation of the word ‘Korasan'. Karachi[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karachi]; Karachi is the largest and most populous metropolitan city of Pakistan and its main seaport and financial centre, as well as the capital of Sindh province. The city is located in the south of the country, along the coastline meeting the Arabian Sea. It is spread over 3,527 km2 (1,362 sq mi) in area. It is known as the "City of Lights" and "The Bride of the Cities” for its liveliness, and the "City of the Quaid” have been the birth and burial place of Quaid-e-Azam, the Great Leader, (Muhammad Ali Jinnah), the founder of Pakistan, who made the city his home after Pakistan's independence from the British Raj on 14 August 1947. Karachi is apure Tamil name and it is the combination of Ka +Ra+Atchi which means the land is rules by the Ra , the Sun . Lahore[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lahore] ;' Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. It is the largest native Punjabi-populated city in the world and an important historical centre of the country. With a rich history dating back over a millennium, Lahore is a main cultural centre of Punjab and Pakistan. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains an economic, political, transportation, entertainment, and educational hub. It is referred to as the "Mughal City of Gardens" due to the historic presence of gardens in and around the city dating back to the Mughal period. A legend based on oral traditions holds that Lahore, known in ancient times as Shehwar Elahi ka thikana ("Den of Shehwar" in Sanskrit), was founded by Prince Lava or Loh, the son of Rama, the Hindu deity, while Kasur was founded by his twin brother Prince Kusha. La +vaa +an is the white and illuminating sun god and Kusha is the Ko +sa , the red sun of the sky . Shehwar Elahi ka thIkana is the Tamil Sevu orai alaku ko thee yanam. To this day, Lahore Fort has a vacant temple dedicated to Lava (also pronounced Loh, hence Loh-awar or "The Fort of Loh"). Ptolemy, the celebrated 2nd-century Egyptian astronomer and geographer, mentions in his Geographia a city called Labokla situated on the route between the Indus River and Palibothra, or Pataliputra (Patna) mostly, in a tract of country called Kasperia (Kashmir). It was described as extending along the rivers Bidastes or Vitasta (Jhelum), Sandabal or Chandra Bhaga (Chenab), and Adris or Iravati (Ravi). This city may have been ancient Lahore. Labokla is the Tamil la+ba--kala or Ba +la + ka+ [ l]an , the sun god Murugan. Iravathi is the Tamil Orai Aa Thee. The English word ‘The' could be etymologically related to the Tamil word Thee, the fire. Lahore is the corrupted form of the Tamil name La-+ka+Orai, the sparkling star of the sky. Bahawalpur; Located in Punjab, it is the eleventh largest city in Pakistan. The city is capital of Bahawalpur District. The city was once the capital of the former princely state and later the province of Bahawalpur. The city was home to various Nawabs (rulers) and counted as part of the Rajputana states (now Rajasthan, India). The city is known for its famous palaces such as the Noor Mahal, Sadiq Ghar Palace, and Darbar Mahal, as well as the ancient fort of Derawar in the Cholistan Desert bordering India. The city is located near the historical and ancient cities of Uch and Harappa, which were once a stronghold of the Delhi Sultanate and Indus Valley Civilisation. Bahawalpur is the corrupted form of the Tamil name ba+ka+va+la+ba+ Orai which means the the roaming sun of the day time, Pakal Bhagalpur is a municipal corporation town situated in the planes of the Ganga river basin at the height of 141 feet above sea level in Bihar, India.. Bhagalpur is world renowned for its silk products and it is known in India as the "Silk City", famous for its Tussar Silk & Tussar Saree. Bhagalpur is the Tamil Pahal pur or the Tamil Pakal Peru orai, the sun of the day time. Pahlava Kingdomis identified to be a kingdom of an Iranian tribe. The kingdom was well known, even during the campaign of Alexander. It was also mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. Pahlava is the pure Tamil name Pakalavan, Ba+ka +vaa+la +an , the sun of the day time. Pallava kingdom [en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pallava Kingdom]; The Pallava dynasty existed between the 2nd and 9th centuries CE. They gained promin] ence after the eclipse of the Satavahana dynasty, which the Pallavas served as feudatories. A number of legends are associated with their origin. The Proceedings of the First Annual Conference of South Indian History Congress also notes: The word Tondai means a creeper and the term Pallava conveys a similar meaning. Since Pallavas ruled in the territory extending from Bellary to Bezwada, it led to the probability of a theory that the Pallavas were a northern dynasty who having contracted marriages with princesses of the Andhra Dynasty inherited a portion of Southern Andhra Pradesh. KA Nilakanta Sastri postulated that Pallavas were descendants of a North Indian dynasty of Indian origin who moved down South, adopted local traditions to their own use, and named themselves after the land called Tondai as Tondaiyar. KP Jayaswal also proposed a North Indian origin for them, putting forward the theory that the Pallavas were a branch of the Vakatakas. The association with Vakatakas is corroborated by the fact that the Pallavas adopted imperial Vakataka heraldic marks, as is evident from Pallava insignia. The Pallavas had on their seal, the Ganga and Yamuna, known to be Vakataka insignia. A Sangam Period classic, Manimekhalai, attributes the origin of the first Pallava King from a liaison between the daughter of a Naga king of Manipallava named Pilli Valai (Pilivalai), with a Chola King Killivalavan, out of which union was born a prince, who was lost in ship wreck and found with a twig (pallava) of Cephallandra indica (Tondai) around his ankle and hence named Tondai-man. Another version states "Pallava" was born from the union of the Brahmin Asvathama with a Naga Princess also supposedly supported in the sixth verse of the Bahur plates which states "From Asvathama was born the king named Pallava". The Pallavas themselves claimed to descend from Brahma and Asvatham. Palla puram; Pallavaram ('originally Pallava Puram)
(Tamil is a town and a second-grade municipality located in the suburbs of Chennai. It forms a part of the Tambaram taluk of Kanchipuram district and is located 17 kilometres from Chennai city. Pallavaram is known for its cantonment and bustling residential colonies. The suburb is served by Pallavaram railway station of the Chennai Suburban Railway Network. Pallavaram has a long history and has been inhabited since the Paleolithic Age. The city derives its name from the Pallava settlement of Pallavapuram of which it used to form a part. The cantonment and aerodrome were established during British rule. The British also carried out mining activities on Pallavaram Hill made of charnockite rock which is believed to have healing properties. The Pallavan, Ba+la+vaan is the short form of the Tamil word Balakan or Pakalavan or Balan or Balavaan, the sun god. Satavahana is the sa+thee+Aa-- Vahanan , the sun god, Mayil vahanan. Nakh peoples[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nakh people] are a group of historical and modern ethnic groups speaking (or historically speaking) Nakh languages and sharing certain cultural traits. In modern days, they reside almost completely in the North Caucasus, but historically large areas of the South Caucasus may have also been Nakh. Nakh is the Tamil Na+ka which means the fire flames [Naakku] of the the sky [ka] the sun rays. Naka also indicates the tounge of the snake. The only healthy, living branch of the Nakh languages are now the Vainakh languages (spoken by the Vainakh peoples, namely Chechens, Ingush and Georgian Kist), due to the extinction of other peoples. The only non-Vainakh modern Nakh people are the Bats people in Northeast Georgia, but they are largely assimilated and their language is highly endangered. Although the Vainakh are only a branch of Nakh peoples, due to the present day situation where the only well-known Nakh are Vainakh, the words Vainakh and Nakh are frequently confused. Hence the word Vainakh is frequently, but mistakenly applied to historical non-Vainakh peoples. Aralvaimozhi (or Aramboly) is a panchayat town in Kanniyakumari District in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. It is a small village situated in southern India. Vainakh is the Tamil word Vaai nakku which means the toungue [ nakh] of the mouth [ Vaai] and so Vainakh literally means the ‘speech' or language . In Tamil the word for language , is Mozhi [ Ma+la] and the name Tamil is the combination of Thee+ma+la. Aral vaai means the mouth filled with water or the fire. Aral in Tamil means both the water and fire.Hence the Tamil word; Aral vaai'-- Mala is the equivalent one to the language of Nakh people , the Vai nakh. ‘Aral vaayan' is the sun god. Here Vaa Aa is the sky . A characteristic feature of Vainakh architecture in the Middle Ages, rarely seen outside Chechnya and Ingushetia, was the Vainakh tower, a kind of multi-floor structure that was used for dwelling or defense (or both). Nakh tower architecture and construction techniques reached their peak in the 15th–17th centuries. The Vainakh pagan pantheon included a supreme god Dela and a goddess of fertility Tusholi. There were also phallic cults. Vai nakh is the phallus symbol, the sexual fire. The tongue is called as ‘thee' [fire] as in the word Thee andal, which means the snake [tongue ] bite. ‘ Thee andal' is also the word for the ‘touch' of the male and female who are in ‘crush' .The Dela is the Tamil Thee + la , illuminating fire . It is the Tamil Thalai which means the head or the one who is important, the sun .The Dela is the Greek island Delos of Apollo. Tusholi is the Tamil Thee +sa +la, the moon goddess. Sa la [ the white moon] , Salai [ the illuminated road-- the milky way ] , Sa la thee bam [ the fire who sails in the sky or sea , Sai la sa[ name] , Sallisa [ cheap] , Salli kasu , Salm [ water ] etc are related tamil words. The phallic cult signifies that the Nakh people are related to ancient Dravidian. Vaa kku in Tamil means the ‘assurance' or the ‘vote' or simply the ‘speech' .Vakku means the capacity or potency. Arme;Möllendorff: fulgiyan sorson manju because of their traditional hat ornaments. Manchus are the largest branch of the Tungusic peoples and are chiefly distributed throughout China, forming the fourth largest ethnic group and the third largest ethnic minority group in that country. They can be found in 31 Chinese provincial regions. It is also the largest minority group in China without an autonomous region. Tungusic peoples[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tungusic people] are the peoples who speak Tungusic languages. They inhabit Eastern Siberia and are often contrasted with Mongols. The first European description of the Tungusic people was by the Dutc nia[en.wikipedia.org.wiki/Armenia] ; Armenian: Hayastan), officially the Republic of Armenia, Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun), is a mountainous country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. Armenia is the pure Tamil name Aravu Mani, the wheel like sun in the sky and the colied snake in the earth. Aravu mani is the snake necklace, of lord Siva. The name Harmonia is again the Tamil name, Aravu Mani. Aayan in Tamil means the shepherd. Ayasthanam means the land for cattle grazing. Nagorno karabakh is the Tamil Na ga Ra na Karai paakkam. Nakhchivan is the Tamil Na ga Sivan. The native Armenian name for the country is Hayk'. The name in the middle Ages was extended to Hayastan, by addition of the Iranian suffix -Stan (place). The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk ( ???? ), the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, who according to the 5th century author Moses of Chorene defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC, and established his nation in the Ararat region. The further origin of the name is uncertain. Noah's son could have been a shepherd, the Tamil ‘Aayan' .Noah is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Aa Na, Annan, the sun. Aa means the ‘Akasam' the sky as we open the mouth while saying Aa. Na is the Naakku, the tongue movement and opening the mouth while making the sound Na. Hence No Ah [Vaai Naa] means the Naakku of the aakasam, the fire flame of the sun. ‘Na Vaai' in Tamil means the ‘ship' in which No Ah boarded. ‘Na Vaai ‘is the ship that sails in the sky which is nothing but the the sun or the red tongue that floats in the watery mouth. Babylonian king' Bel ‘is nothing but the pure Tamil name ‘Balan' .In fact the name Babylonia is the corrupted form of the Tamil name ‘Boo Balan'. Look at the similarity between the Tamil Na vaai -- [ tougue-the ship ], Bibilical Noah [ the person or ship ] and the Vai nakh [ the tougue or the language of Nakh people. Aaya in Tamil means the ‘elderly lady' [from whom we came in to existence] or the ancestor. Ayam means the place as in the word Aalayam. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a lineal descendant of Hayk. Aram means the Aravaan, the sun god, or the Aravaan, the snake god. ‘Aaram' in Tamil means the' vattam', wheel, the sun god, Tharma chakkaram [Thee+ Ra+ ma - Sa+ ka+ Ra +am]. Tharmam, Tharuman are pure Tamil words and Tharuman [Dharma] means the sun god. The Tharmam of Dharma is ‘the sun light, water land and sky for every one'. Hindu Sanathana [Sae theenan] Dharmam as told by Vedic Brahamins on caste basis is utterly a false one and it is against the Dravidian philosophy of Dharmam. Yerevan [en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yerevan]; Armenia: is the capital and largest city of Armenia and one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities. Situated along the Hrazdan River, Yerevan is the administrative, cultural, and industrial center of the country. It has been the capital since 1918, the thirteenth in the history of Armenia. Hrazdan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ara sa thaanam. The history of Yerevan dates back to the 8th century BC, with the founding of the fortress of Erebuni in 782 BC by king Argishti I at the western extreme of the Ararat plain. After World War I, Yerevan became the capital of the Democratic Republic of Armenia as thousands of survivors of the Armenian Genocide settled in the area. The city expanded rapidly during the 20th century as Armenia became one of the fifteen republics in the Soviet Union. In fifty years, Yerevan was transformed from a town of a few thousand residents within the Russian Empire, to Armenia's principal cultural, artistic, and industrial center, as well as becoming the seat of national government One theory regarding the origin of Yerevan's name is the city was named after the Armenian king, Yervand IV (the Last), the last leader of the Orontid Dynasty, and founder of the city of Yervandashat. However, it is likely that the city's name is derived from the Urartian military fortress of Erebuni ( ???????? ), which was founded on the territory of modern-day Yerevan in 782 BC by Argishti I. As elements of the Urartian language blended with that of the Armenian one, the name eventually evolved into Yerevan (Erebuni = Erevani = Erevan = Yerevan). Scholar Margarit Israelyan notes these changes when comparing inscriptions found on two cuneiform tablets at Erebuni. ‘Yervand' is the Tamil name Ari va ananth [ an ] . Ari vaa nanthan means the eternal fire of the sky, the sun. ‘Orontid ‘is the corrupted form of the Tamil name ‘Orai anda thee ‘. ‘Yervandashat' is the Tamil Eri Vaa nantha sa thee. Antha +sa+ thee = Anthasthu in Tamil which means prestige and fame. Eri buni is the Tamil Eri Bani as in Thanda bani, lord Siva, the sun god. ‘Eri vaan' is the red sky. Eri in Tamil means' red' or fire as in Eritria . Vaan in Tamil means the sky. The word ‘Eri vaan' has corrupted to become the Tamil word ‘Eraivan', the god. The related word ‘Arivaan' means the white sun. ‘Urarti' is the Tamil Orai Aara Thee, the sun rays as the necklace or the head dress. The king‘s name ‘Argisti' is the corrupted form of the Tamil name ‘Orai kosa thee'. Mount Ararat – symbol of the Armenian nation and Yerevan – overlooking the city. Ararat is the corrupted form of the Tamil name ‘Orai Aara thee' and it is the Urati. Early Christian Armenian chroniclers attributed the origin of the name, "Yerevan," to a derivation from an expression exclaimed by Noah, in Armenian. While looking in the direction of Yerevan, after the ark had landed on Mount Ararat and the flood waters had receded, Noah is believed to have exclaimed, "Yerevats!" ("It appeared!"). It appeared! What was that appeared to No Ah?! --which is nothing but the rays of the sun beyond the mountains of Ararat, the Orai Aara thee. In Armenian manuscripts, Yerevan was also mentioned as Erevan, Erivan, Erewan, Ervan, Eruan, Arevan, Iravan, Revan and Ayravan. The above said names are clealy the Tamil names , Erivan [ the red sun ] , Eraivan [ the god] , Ere Vaan[ the red sky] , Oruvan [ the only one god the sun] , Arivaan [ the one with wisdom-- He knows everything], Ravaan, short form of Ra va nan and Aryavan , the Vaan orai . The principal symbol of Yerevan is Mount Ararat, which is visible from any area in the capital. The seal of the city is a crowned lion on a pedestal with the inscription "Yerevan." The lion's head is turned backwards while it holds a scepter using the right front leg, the attribute of power and royalty. The symbol of eternity is on the breast of the lion with a picture of Ararat in the upper part. The emblem is a rectangular shield with a blue border. The blue border of the emblem denotes the sky. The crowned Lion is the Tamil Ari Maa , the Maa Orai . ‘Arimasanam' in Tamil means the throne of the king and the god , the sun. Matanaderan; The palce of the collection of ancient menuscripts of Yerevan is kept in Matanaderan .Matanadran is the corruption of the Tamil name Ma +thee+na+tharan. The Manchus [en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Manchus]; Manchu, Möllendorff: manju; pinyin: Manzú; Wade–Giles: Man3-tsu2) are members of an indigenous people of Manchuria also known as red tasseled Manchus (Manchu: ;Möllendorff: amaga aisin gurun. The name Sure Kundlen Khan is a pure Tamil name , Sooryan Kundalan Kon which means the bright sun , the ruler of the ko andam , the universe. Genggiyan khan is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Sa+an +sa +Aa+an, Sanjayan kon. Amaga aisin guran is the Tamil Aa Maka Arasan ko Aran. Moran; Moran, the name of the place in Denizli, Turkey is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ma Ran. There is also a place by name Moran in Assam, Dibrughar district. Kama River; Kama (Russian: ????´ ??´??, IPA: ['kam?];, Latin: Çulman; Udmurt: ???) is a major river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga and the largest one in discharge; in fact, it is larger than the Volga before junction. It starts in Udmurtia, near Kuliga, flowing north-west on 125 miles, turn north-east near Loyno for another 125 miles, then turns south and west in Perm Krai, flowing again through Udmurtia and then through Tatarstan, where it meets the Volga. Among the Turkic peoples, Kama was known as Chulman, and was considered the origin of the Volga. Kama river is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ka ma or Ma ko which means the great' ko', or the sky. The Turkic name Chulman is the Tamil ka [la] man and Kama is the short form of it. Udmurtia could be the corrupted form of the Tamil word Aathi Moorthy [ Ma +Orai+thee ], the starting point of the river. ‘Kuliga' is the Tamil ‘Kalika' and ‘Perm Krai ‘ is the Tamil ‘ Perum Karai' [ Ko +Orai]. Sakmara River; Sakmara River (Russian: ???????; Bashkir: ??????, Haqmar) is a river in Russia that drains the southern tip of the Ural Mountains south into the Ural River. Its length is 760 kilometers (470 mi). It is a tributary of the Ural River, which it meets in Orenburg. The source of the Sakmara River is in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Other towns along the Sakmara are Yuldybayevo (Bashkortostan), Kuvandyk, and Saraktash (Orenburg Oblast). Sakmara is the corrupted form of the Tamil name ‘Sukumaran'. The female form is Sukumarai. The word is the combination of sa+Ka+ma+Ra+an. Ural or Aral in Tamil means' water'. Aral in the sky is the fire.The Aral river name is a pure Tamil one. [ Sangamtamildictionary.wordpresscom . One-word-many- meaning ] . Baskortostan is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Baskara thee thanam. Adana[www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adana] ; Adana is a city in southern Turkey and a major agricultural and commercial center. It is the fifth most populous city in Turkey. The city is situated on the Seyhan River, 30 km inland from the Mediterranean Sea, in south-central Anatolia. It is the administrative seat of the Adana Province and has a population of 1.6 million, making it the most populated city of the region. According to numerous sources, the name Adana is derived from the Hittite URUAdaniya of Kizzuwatna, while others assert that it is related to the legendary character Danaus, or to the Danaoi, a mythological Greek tribe who came from Egypt and established themselves in the Greek city Argos.The earlier Egyptian texts for a country Danaja are inscriptions from Thutmosis II (1437 BC) and Amenophis III (1390-1352 BC). After the collapse of the Mycenean civilization (1200 BC) some refugeees from the Aegean area went to the coast of Cilicia. The inhabitants Dananayim or Danuna are identified as one group of the sea-peoples who attacked Egypt on 1191 BC during the reign of Ramesses III. Denyen are identified as inhabitants of the city Adana. It is also possible that the name is connected with the PIE da-nu (river) Da-na-vo (people living by the river), Scythian nomad people, water demons in Rigveda (Danavas). In the Iliad of Homer, the city is called Adana. In Hellenistic times, it was known as Antiochia in Cilicia or Antiochia ad Sarum "Antiochia on the Sarus" . The editors of The Helsinki Atlas tentatively identify Adana as Quwê (as contained in cuneiform tablets), the Neo-Assyrian capital of Quwê province. The name also appears as Coa, and may be the place referred to in the Bible, where King Solomon obtained horses. (I Kings 10:28; II Chron. 1:16). The Armenian name of the city is ????? Atana or ????? Adana. According to an ancient Greco-Roman legend, the name has its origins in Adanus and Sarus, the two sons of Uranus, who came to a place near the Seyhan (Sarus) River, where they built Adana. An older legend relates the city's name to Adad (also known as Tesup or Ishkur), the Thunder God in the Akkadian, Sumerian, Babylonian, Assyrian and Hittite mythologies, who was believed to live in the nearby forest, and whose name was given to the region. The Hittites' names and writings have been found in the area, evidencing this possibility. The theory goes that since the Thunder God brought so much rain and this rain in turn brought such great abundance in this particular region, this god was loved and respected by its inhabitants and, in his honor, the region was called the "Uru Adaniyya"; in h traveller Isaac Massa in 1612. The word Tungus derives from "Donki" which means "men" in Tungusic languages. It has also been suggested that the word derives from "tungus" which means pig. Some scholars suggest derivation from the Chinese word Donghu "Eastern Barbarians", c.f. Tonggu = Tungusic). This "chance similarity in modern pronunciation", writes Pulleyblank, "led to the once widely held assumption that the Eastern Hu were Tungusic in language. However, there is little basis for this theory." The word originated in Tunguska, a region of eastern Siberia bounded on the west by the Tunguska River and on the east by the Pacific Ocean. The largest of the Tungusic peoples are the Manchu who number around 10 million. They are originally from Manchuria, which is now Northeast China but following their conquest of China in the 17th century, they have been almost totally assimilated into the main Han Chinese population of China. This process accelerated especially during the 20th century. The non-assimilated culture and language is still present in parts of northern China. The actual etymology of the ethnic name "Manju" is debatable. According to Qing Dynasty's official historical record, the Researches on Manchu Origins, the ethnic name came from Mañjusri. Qianlong Emperor also supported the point of view and even made few poems about it. Manchu is the pure Tamil name Manchal people, the people with yellow skin. The name ‘Tungasic' is the Tamil Thanka or Thanga[ gold] saya [ colour] which means the people with the golden yellow colour [ sayam] or Manchal , of the thee thangam [ sun , the sa] . ‘Thungaska' is the Tamil ‘Thanga sekar'. ‘Manjusri' is the Tamil Manja saran, the golden yellow sun. Meng Sen, a famous scholar of Qing study, agreed, too. On the other hand, he thought the name "Manchu" is also related to Li Manzhu, the chieftain of Jianzhou Jurchen. It was just the most respectful appellation in the society of Jianzhou Jurchens in Meng's mind. Another scholar, Chang Shan, thinks Manju is a compound word. "Man" was from the word "mangga" which means strong and "ju" means arrow. So Manju actually means "intrepid arrow".
There is other hypothesis, such as Fu Sinian's "etymology of Jianzhou"; Zhang Binglin's "etymology of Jianzhou"; Isamura Sanjiro's "etymology of Wuji and Mohe"; Sun Wenliang's "etymology of Manzhe"; "etymology of mangu (n) river" and so on. A century after the chaos started in Jurchen's land, Nurhaci, a chieftain of Jianzhou Left Guard, started his ambition as a revenge of Ming's manslaughter of his grandfather and father in 1583. He reunified Jurchen tribes, established a military system called "Eight Banners" to organized Jurchen soldiers as "Bannermen" and ordered his scholar Erdeni and minister Gagai to create a new Jurchen script (later known as Manchu script) by referencing traditional Mongolian alphabet. In 1603, Nurhaci was recognized as Sure Kundulen Khan (Manchu: Möllendorff: sure kundulen han, "wise and respected khan") by his Khalkha Mongol allies. 13 years later (1616), he publically throned and proclaimed himself Genggiyen Khan (Manchu: Möllendorff: genggiyen han, "bright khan") of Later Jin Dynasty (Manchu: other words "the Region of Ada". Adana's name has had many different versions over the centuries: Adanos, Ta Adana, Uru Adaniya, Erdene, Edene, Ezene, Batana, Atana, Azana, and Addane. The Tamil version of the above names are Adanos -- Atheenan , Ta Adana ---Thee Aathinan , Uru Adaniya ---- the uru or ‘ oor' or Ur of Atheenan , Eredene ------- Eretheenan , Ezebne------ Esanee, Batana -- ----Boothanam , Atana -----Atheenam , Azana ---- Aasanan, Addane - Athini -----Aatheenam . Adana is the pure form of the Tamil name ‘Atheenam' or Athee yinam which means the the race of people [native people] who were decended from Aathee , the primordial fire, the sun god. Presently atheenam in Tamil means the ‘mut' of the Saivaites, the sun worshippers.example; Madurai Atheenam and Thirupanthal Aatheenam. Athena, the name of the Greek goddess is the Tamil Aathee nai or Aathee Annai , the mother goddess , the primordial goddess. Uru Adaniyya is clear cut e xample to say that the name is a pure Tamil one as Uru is the Tamil name for the village or the dwelling place. Uru is the corrupted form of the Tamil word orai and urai [uraividam] Danaus is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Thee Nan . Theenan is the hot place and Thanam is the cool place or watery place. Dananayim is the Tamil Thana ayam, the land of the Thanan. Anthichio ad saram is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Anthi kayam[ the evening sky] Athee[ fire] saram [ sun] , the evening sun . Uranus is the corrupted form of the Tamil name ‘Orainan' or ‘Arunan'; Sarus is the Tamil Saran , the red sun. Adad is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Athi thee, the primordial fire , which is responsible for the lightening and Thunder. The Adena Mounds[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adena Mounds]; About 1000 B.C. we can mark the beginning of a new period for man in North America. This period, which lasted until about 700 A.D., is called the Woodland Period. It is during this time that a new culture emerged and made significant settlements in what is now known as West Virginia. These people are known to us today by the general term of the Mound Builders. They were so named for their practice of creating earthen burial mounds and other earthworks. The Mound Builders lived over a wide range from the Atlantic, the Midwest and the Ohio Valley to the Mississippi Valley. The term "mound builders" refers to several cultures that span a period of about 20 centuries. The first group of people to develop this unique way of life was the Adena people. From about 1000 B.C. to approximately 1 A.D. A later group of Mound Builders, the Hopewell, lived from about 1 A.D. to 700 A.D. and represented a greater refinement over the earlier Adena culture. Other cultures extended the Mound Builders to about 1300 A.D. The dwelling place of Aa theenan , the sun god is the Mountain or the mound. Karaman; Karaman is a town in south central Turkey, located in Central Anatolia, north of the Taurus Mountains, about 100 km (62 mi) south of Konya. It is the capital district of the Karaman Province. The town owes its name to Karaman Bey who was one of the rulers of the Karamanid dynasty. The former name Laranda which in turn comes from the Luwian language Larawanda, literally "sandy, a sandy place". Karaman is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ka orai maan or Karu maan or Karai mun or Kari mun . Mun in Tamil means sand. Taurus is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Thee Aran or Theeran. Aran in Tamil means the ‘fort' or the ‘mountain', ‘natural fort'. Karamanid is the corrupted form of the Tamil name' Ko Orai mani thee' the sun. Larawanda means the la+ Ra [sun] of the vaa andam, the universe. Caramania; Cara Mania is the pure Tamil word Ka Orai Maniyan, which means the great star of the sky, the sun. Mehrgarh[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mehrgarh]; Mehrgarh (Balochi: Mehrgarh), sometimes Anglicized as Mehrgahr, Merhgarh or Merhgahr is one of the most important Neolithic (7000 BCE to c. 2500 BCE) sites in archaeology. It lies on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan, Pakistan. It is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming and herding in South Asia. Mehrgarh is located near the Bolan Pass, to the west of the Indus River valley and between the Pakistani cities of Quetta, Kalat and Sibi. The site was discovered in 1974 by an archaeological team directed by French archaeologists Jean-François Jarrige and Catherine Jarrige, and was excavated continuously between 1974 and 1986, and again from 1997 to 2000. The earliest settlement at Mehrgarh, in the northeast corner of the 495-acre (2.00 km2) site, was a small farming village that has been dated to between 7000 BCE to 5500 BCE. The whole area covers a number of successive settlements. Archaeological material has been found in six mounds, and about 32,000 artifacts have been collected. Mehrgarh is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ma+Ka+Ra+Ka+Ra+Aa, Ma kara Karan. Mongols [en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongols] , or Mongolic peoples, are an Inner Asian ethno-linguistic group. Although the largest Mongolic group is those of Mongolia, they also live as minorities across Northern Asia, including Russia, China, and many of the former Soviet Union states. Mongolic peoples belonging to the Buryat ethnic group live predominantly in what is now the autonomous republic of Buryatia, Russia. In China, they live mainly either in Inner Mongolia or, less commonly, in Xinjiang. Mongolic peoples are bound together by a common culture and language, a group of related tongues known as Mongolic languages. Broadly defined, the term includes the Mongols proper (also known as Khalkha Mongols), the Buryats, Oirats, Kalmyks and Southern Mongols. The designation "Mongol" briefly appeared in 8th century records of the Chinese Tang dynasty, describing a tribe of Shiwei, and resurfaced again in the late 11th century during the rule of Khitan. After the fall of Liao Dynasty in 1125, the Mongols became a leading tribe on the steppe and also had power in Northern China. However, their wars with the Jin Dynasty and Tatars had weakened them. In the thirteenth century, the word Mongol grew into an umbrella term for a large group of Mongolic tribes united under the rule of Genghis Khan. Mangole is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Mangala, Ma +ankh + ka +la. Mangala is the big or the great ‘kole', the star, the sun. Litrally Mangole means the great ruler like the sun. The equivalent word for Mangole in Tamil is ‘sengole', the symbolic of the [red] sun ray , the scepter . Mangalam, Mankalayam Mankha is related words. Genghis Khan is the Tamil sa+an+ka +sa kon, Sengha Esan kon which means the red sun. The name Genghis is phonetically related to the Tamli Nadu Gingee fort. Sengan or Senkaesan or Sengathal or Sengamalam are related words Gingee Fort also known as Chenji or Jinji or Senchi in Tamil Nadu, India is one of the few surviving forts in Tamil Nadu, India. It lies in Villupuram District, 160 kilometres (99 mi) from the state capital, Chennai, and is close to the Union Territory of Puducherry. So well fortified was this place that Shivaji ranked it as the "most impregnable fortress in India" and it was called the "Troy of the East" by the British. The Mughal are a number of culturally related clans of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh.In theory, the Mughals of South Asia are descended from the various Central Asian Turkic armies and immigrants that settled in the region from the early middle Ages onwards. In theory, all those who claim Mughal ancestry are descendents of various Central AsianTurco-Mongol armies that invaded Iran and South Asia, from Genghis Khan to Timur to Babur and beyond. But the term has always had a wider meaning. As early as the 17th century, the term Mughal covered a large number of groups. Generally, all Central Asian immigrants to India, Whether Uzbek, Chughtai, Barlas, Douli, Kipchak, Kazakhs, Turkman, Kyrgyz, Uyghurs were referred to as Mughal. The term was also used for later immigrants from Iran and Caucasus, such as the famous Qizilbash community. In North India, the term Mughal refers to one of the four social groups that are referred to as the Ashraaf In Pakistan, a number of tribal groupings such as the Tanoli in North West Frontier Province and the Gheba and Kassar in Punjab claim Mughal ancestry. Mughal is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Ma+ ka+ la , Ma kalan . Ma kalan is the sun god , lord siva. The word ‘Mahaal' [ of Taj Mahaal ] had its root from the Tamil word Ma+ ka+la . The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanli Turks) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes. Reliable information about the early history of Ottoman Turks is scarce, but they take their Turkish name, Osmanli (corrupted in some European languages as "Ottoman"), from the house of Osman I (reigned ca. 1299-1326), the founder of the dynasty that ruled the Ottoman empire for 624 years. After the expansion from its home in Bithynia, the Ottoman principality began incorporating other Turkish-speaking Muslims and non-Turkish Christians, becoming the Ottoman Turks and ultimately the Turks of the present. The Ottoman Turks blocked all land routes to Europe by conquering the city of Constantinople, the capital city of theByzantine-East Roman Empire, and Europeans had to find other ways to trade with Eastern countries. Ottamon is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Aathi Maan .Athiyaman was a king in the ancient Thamilakkam. Tochariyan[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tochariyan]; The Tocharians or Tokharians were inhabitants of medieval oasis city-states on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (modern Xinjiang, China). Their Tocharian languages (a branch of the Indo-European family) are known from manuscripts from the 6th to 8th centuries AD, after which they were supplanted by the Turkic languages of the Uyghur tribes. Some scholars have linked the Tocharians with the Afanasevo culture of eastern Siberia (c. 3500 – 2500 BC), the Tarim mummies(c. 1800 BC) and the Yuezhi of Chinese records, most of whom migrated from southern Gansu to Bactria in the 2nd century BC and then later to northwest India where they founded the Kushan Empire. Around the beginning of the 20th century, archaeologists recovered from oases in the Tarim Basin a number of manuscripts written in two closely related but previously unknown Indo-European languages. Another text recovered from the same area, a Buddhist work in Old Turkic, included a colophon stating that the text had been translated from Sanskrit via a toxrï language, which Friedrich W. K. Müller guessed was one of the newly discovered languages. Müller called the languages "Tocharian" (German Tocharisch), linking this toxrï with the ethnonym Tókharoi applied by Strabo to one of the Scythian tribes that overran the Greco-Bactrian kingdom (present day Afghanistan-Pakistan) in the second half of the 2nd century BC. This term was itself derived from Indo-Iranian (cf. Old Persian tuxari-, Khotanese ttahvara, and Sanskrit tukhara), the source of the term "Tokharistan" usually referring to 1st millennium Bactria, as well as the Takhar province of Afghanistan. The Tókharoi are often identified by modern scholars with the Yuezhiof Chinese historical accounts, who founded the Kushan empire. These people are now known to have spoken Bactrian, an Eastern Iranian language that is quite distinct from the Tocharian languages, and Müller's identification is now a minority position among scholars. Nevertheless "Tocharian" remains the standard term for the languages of the Tarim Basin manuscripts and for the people who produced them. The two languages are known as Tocharian A (also East Tocharian or Turfanian, from the city of Turpan) and Tocharian B (also West Tocharian or Kuchean, from the city of Kucha). The native name of the historical Tocharians of the 6th to 8th centuries was, according to J. P. Mallory, possibly kusiññe "Kuchean" (Tocharian B), "of the kingdom of Kucha and Agni", and arsi (Tocharian A); one of the Tocharian A texts has arsi-käntwa, "In the tongue of Arsi" (arsi is probably cognate to argenteus, i.e. "shining, brilliant"). According to Douglas Q. Adams, the Tocharians may have called themselves akñi, meaning "borderers, marchers". The historianBernard Sergent has called them Arsi-Kuci, recently revised to Agni-Kuci. Tochari is the corrupted form of the Tamil name ‘Thee ka Ra' ‘Turpan' is the Tamil ‘Thee Ra Appan' or ‘Thiru Appan' or ‘Thirai Appan', the sun god. Kucha is the Tamil ka + sa [kosa] and Agni is the fire and so Kucha Agni means the the fire of the sky. Arsi - kantwa is the Aa Ra Sa kanthavan, the sun god. Arsi-- is the orai sa, the brilliantly shining sun. The name ‘Agni' people [the tochariyan] clearly indicates that they were the decendents of the fire Agni --- thee karan, or thee kariyon , the tochariyan , the fire worshippers. Uyghur people[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uyghur people]; Uyghur history is divided by some historians into four distinct phases: Pre-Imperial (300 BC – AD 630), Imperial (AD 630–840), Idiqut (AD 840–1200), and Mongol (AD 1209–1600), with perhaps a fifth modern phase running from the death of the Silk Road in AD 1600 until the present. In brief, Uyghur history is the story of a small nomadic tribe from the Altai Mountains competing with rival powers in Central Asia, including other Altaic tribes, Indo-European empires from the south and west, and Sino-Tibetan empires to the east. After the collapse of the Uyghur Khaganate in AD 840, Uyghur resettled from Mongolia to the Tarim Basin, assimilating the Indo-European population, which had previously been driven out of the region by the Xiongnu. Ultimately, the Uyghurs became civil servants administering the Mongol Empire. Uyghur is often pronounced 'wi?g?r' by English speakers, though an acceptable English pronunciation closer to the Uyghur people's pronunciation of it would be u?.i'g?r. Several alternate romanizations also appear: Uighur, Uygur, and Uigur. The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region provincial government recommends that the generic ethnonym [?j'???], adopted in the early 20th century for this Turkic people, be transcribed as "Uyghur." The meaning of the term Uyghur is unclear. Most Uyghur linguists and historians regard the word as coming from uyughur (uyushmaq in modern Uyghur language), literally meaning 'united' or 'people who tend to come together'. Chinese Tang dynasty annals refer to them by the ethnonyms Huí Hú or Huí Hé; according to Yin Weixian, the Turkic runicinscriptions record a word uy?ur, which was first transcribed into Chinese as Huí Hé but later, in response to an Uyghur request, changed to Huí Hú in 788 or 809. Chinese history Jiu Wudai Shi suggests that the term Huí Hú means literally as the "rapidity with which they turned around and swooped down like a falcon". Modern etymological explanations have ranged from "to follow, accommodate oneself" and "non-rebellious" (from Turk. uy/uð-) to "to wake, rouse, stir" (from oðgur-), none of which is satisfactory. The etymology therefore cannot be accurately determined, and historically the groups it denoted were not ethnically fixed, since it denoted a political rather than a tribal identity, or was used originally to refer to just one group among several, the others calling themselves Toquz Oghuz. The term Uyghur disappeared from historical records in the 15th century, but the Bolsheviks reintroduced the term Uyghur to replace the previously used Turk or Turki.In modern usage, Uyghur refers to settled Turkic urban dwellers and farmers of Kashgaria or Uyghurstan who follow traditional Central Asian sedentary practices, as distinguished from nomadic Turkic populations in Central Asia. Throughout history, the term Uyghur has taken on an increasingly expansive definition. Initially signifying only a small coalition of Tiele tribes in Northern China, Mongolia, and the Altay Mountains, it later denoted citizenship in the Uyghur Khaganate. Finally it was expanded to an ethnicity whose ancestry originates with the fall of the Uyghur Khaganate in the year 842, which caused Uyghur migration from Mongolia into the Tarim Basin. This migration assimilated and replaced the Indo-Europeans of the region to create a distinct identity, as the language and culture of the Turkic migrants eventually supplanted the original Indo-European influences. This fluid definition of Uyghur and the diverse ancestry of modern Uyghurs are a source of confusion about what constitutes true Uyghur ethnography and ethnogenesis. Modern scholars consider modern Uyghurs to be the descendants of a number of people, including the ancient Uyghurs of Mongolia who arrived at the Tarim Basin after the fall of Uyghur Khaganate, Iranian Saka tribes, and other Indo-European peoples who inhabited the Tarim Basin before the arrival of the Mongolian Uyghurs. DNA analyses indicate that the peoples of central Asia such as the Uyghurs are all mixed Caucasian and East Asian. Uyghur activists identify with the Tarim mummies, but research into the genetics of ancientTarim mummies and their links with modern Uyghurs remain controversial, both to Chinese government officials concerned with ethnic separatism and to Uyghur activists concerned that research could affect their claims of being indigenous to the region. Uygh- ur is the corrupted form of the Tamil name A[a]gaiyur , the city of the sun , Aagai is the corrupted form of the Aa + ka , the sun of the sky. Ur is the Dravidian name for the village or the dwelling place as the ‘Ur' of the Mesapatomoia. Ur is the shiort form of ‘Orai' [Aa+Ra = Orai].There is a place called ‘Waghaiyur' in Tanjore district of Tamil Nadu. Wahgaiyur means ‘the land that was conquered'. Wagai in Tamil means ‘victory ‘. Conclusion The above said etymological explanations of various names of the places and persons related to central Asia strongly gives the conclusion that the Dravidian language speaking Tamil people were in direct and prolonged contact [ As suggested by Musaeu ] with the Uralic and Altaic language speeking people in the prehistoric times. This indicate the Dravidian people were really the inhabitants of the central Asia at one point of time in the ancient past as suggested by Clyde winter. The etymological explanations given in the article are very strong and they could not be due to mere chance association and also not because of trade connections. More over it seems that the Dravidian language Tamil should be the oldest one among all languages since the Tamil magical letters are pertaining to the worship of sun or fire only! It seems that the Dravidian language Tamil had donated the letters, Aa , ka , Ma, thee, Sa , Ra ,ba and An , to all other languages and it is not an exaggerated one to make a comment that ‘ Tamil is the mother of all languages' . The etymological associations of the names of places of Indus Vally civilizations with Tamil words clearly show that the Indus valley civilization was a Dravidian civilization.