Greek Tholos in Tamil
The word tholos is the corrupted word for thoppul of the Tamil language. Thoppul had been modified in to toplou and toplou was then corrupted to tholou and later to tholos in the language that existed in ancient pre Hellenic period . Thus tholos is nothing but the umbilicus. Alternatively tholos could also be related to thulai which means hole in Tamil.[Refer: mathala] .The Thulai is the entry point in to the abdomen or to the uterus though the umbilical cord.
The Delphi Tholos
Tholos is a generic name signifying a round stone chamber.
Archaeologically we know but little about the early beginnings of Delphi. Excavations have revealed the site was a Mycenaean village from 1500 to 1100 BCE, during which time the primary religious emphasis was on an oracular cult of the Earth Goddess. Around 1000 BCE the worship of Apollo became dominant when this new god was brought to the region by either Dorian from Crete or northern tribes from Thessaly. The oracular use of the site continued during Apollo's occupation and Delphi achieved Pan-Hellenic fame as a major oracle shrine by the 7th century BCE.
Located roughly one-half mile from the main concentration of buildings at Delphi, Athena Pronaia was the gateway to Delphi. The site, having been occupied since the Neolithic Period (5000-3000 BCE) and later by the Mycenaeans, may actually predate Delphi as a sacred place. Originally dedicated to the worship of an Earth Goddess, the shrine was eventually occupied by Olympian deities, Athena in particular. Athena's shrine stood near the entrance to Apollo's; hence the epithet 'of the fore-shrine', which is confirmed by inscriptions. Athena Pronaia, 'Athena before the Temple', was also called, by a sort of pun, Athena Pronoia, 'Athena of forethought.'
The tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia at Delphi was built sometime between 400-375 BCE and was probably designed by Theodorus of Phocaea, who is said to have written a treatise devoted to the temple structure (Lawrence 1957, 184).
The circular shape of the tholos at Delphi is not unusual in Greek architecture, and in this case its shape, coupled with the leaf-adorned capitals of the Corinthian columns of the cella's interior, are said to be representative of the sacred forests of the Earth Goddess Religion. Vincent Scully (1979) states, The omphalos, or navel, which was supposed to mark the center of the world, was kept in the sanctuary of Apollo's temple itself (in the center of nearby Delphi), but the tholos of Athena's sanctuary more clearly seems to evoke the navel of the earth than does the other building there.
The use of tholos, as all the circular buildings in Greek actuaries, remains still dark even it is supposed that is related with chthonian cults. Perhaps the most photographed building from the Greek world, the tholos at Delphi continues to puzzle and perplex. Greek temples are built to a very regular, rectangular design, like the Parthenon. So why is this building round? Is it a temple at all?
The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia is a circular building that 20 Doric columns arranged with an exterior diameter of 14.76 meters, with 10 Corinthian columns in the interior.
.. 26 columns standing for 26 thousand years ( the sun
required 25,796 solar years to return to its starting point at 0 degrees of Aries on the vernal equinox) comprise the exterior Doric colonnade. The inner colonnade consisted of 14 columns of the Corinthian order and represents the Moon's monthly cycle. Hence, the circular building of the Tholos was a complete astronomical monument.
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From the above said ideas it is understood that the meaning for the round structure of tholos is not known. The rounded tholos is nothing but the protruded umbilicus of the new born baby. [Ref; Vincent scully]The tholos or the protruded umbilicus was the earliest form of fertility worship of pre- Hellenic people. The protruded umbilicus surrounded by a dimple was later worshipped as -Lingam -yoni during latter period in India. If it is truly a lingam in its origin the glans penis should be within the yoni and should not be pointing upwards. In between, in the history of humanity. The same tholos was worshipped as the obelisk --Sun god/fire worship. Tholos signify the image of fire, When the ancient man made fire by spurning a stick [hand drill] in a small cup like wooden base/holder filled with dry leaves [fire making by Friction method]. There is dispute regarding the number of columns in the tholos. Generally it is said that the total number of columns are 20 +10. If we take 26 +14 columns [email@example.com] as the real number, the 26 outer columns represents the beginning of the day of menstrual bleed [-cycle of 28 days] and the 14 internal columns represents the 14 th day, the time for of ovulation. The total 40 columns signify the total number of weeks of gestation .i.e. Pregnancy period.
Friction fire making (fire plough) .
Fire can be created through friction created by rapidly grinding pieces of wood against each other or a hard surface. Any type of wood can be used, though softer woods are easier.
The hand drill is debated to be the oldest method of fire by friction, characterized by the use of a thin, straightened wooden shaft or reed to be spun with the hands , grinding within a notch against the soft wooden base of a fire board (a wooden board with a carved notch in which to catch heated wood fibers created by friction). This repetitive spinning and downward pressure causes black dust to form in the notch of the fireboard, eventually creating a hot, glowing coal . The coal is then carefully placed onto suitable tinder and fanned gently until flame is produced.
The bow drill uses the same principle as the hand drill (friction by rotation of wood on wood), but the spindle is shorter, wider (about the size of a human's thumb) and driven by a bow, which allows longer strokes. With a well-built bow drill and enough practice, fire can be easily created even in wet conditions.
Another simple fire making tool using friction is a fire plough . It consists of a stick cut to a dull point, and a long piece of wood with a groove cut down its length. The point of the first piece is rubbed against the groove of the second piece in a "plowing" motion, rapidly, to produce hot dust that then becomes a coal. A split is often made down the length of the grooved piece, so that oxygen can flow freely to the coal/ember. Once hot enough, the coal is introduced to the tinder, more oxygen is added by blowing and the result is ignition.
St. Peter's cathedral-- Square--- Roma. The Obelisk or the tholos in the center of the Tholoe pai or the Delphi.
The glans of the lingam is pointing upwards instead of contained within the yoni.
The lingam has the glans pointing upwards rather than within the yoni .
Blue Mosque with the tholos at the top.
Buddist's stupa--- Buddist's tholos.
Florence cathedral with the tholos at the top.