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Lebanon, Syria, Eritrea and Ancient Iran in Tamil

Lebanon ? ,  Libnan  or   Lubnan ,   officially the   Lebanese Republic  ? ,   is a country in the   East Mediterranean. It is bordered by   Syria   to the north and east and   Israel   to the south. Lebanon's location at the   crossroads   of the   Mediterranean Basin   and the   Arabian   hinterland   has dictated   its rich history   and shaped   a cultural identity   ofreligious   and   ethnic   diversity.


                            The name   Lebanon   comes from the   Semitic   root   LBN , meaning "white", likely and a reference to the snow-capped   Mount Lebanon. Occurrences of the name have been found in different texts from the library of   Ebla,  which date to the third millennium BC, nearly 70 times in the   Hebrew Bible, and three of the twelve tablets of the   Epic of Gilgamesh   (perhaps as early as 2100 BC).The name is recorded in   Ancient Egyptian   as   Rmnn , where   R   stood for Canaanite.  


                              The name Lebanon is the combination of La+ Ba+an where   the' la' means moon or   light   in Tamil. For example, the word   ladd'um [horse shoe]     in   Tamil had   its name   because   of the crescent moon shape. Laddu is the related word. Latha is a proper name.   Hence the name Lebanon   could mean ‘the moon [light] on   the earth; ‘the ruler of the universe'. The library name  Ebla    is  only the reverse  of  Laba   which  is  a  place[library]   where  one   gets  enlightened.



       Syria  ;     Suriyah     , is a country in   Western Asia, bordering   Lebanon   and the   Mediterranean Sea   to the West,   Turkey   to the north,   Iraq   to the east,   Jordan   to the south and   Israel   to the southwest. A country of fertile plains, high mountains and deserts, it is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including   Kurds,   Armenians,   Assyrians, Christians,   Druze,   Alawite   Shias   and Arab Sunnis.


                             The name   Syria   is derived from the   ancient Greek   name for Syrians:   Sýrioi , or   Sýroi , which the Greeks applied without distinction to the   Assyrians.     A number of modern scholars argued that the Greek word related to the cognate   Assyria , ultimately derived from the   Akkadian   Aššur.      Others believed that it was derived from   Siryon , the name of the   Sidoniansgave to   Mount Hermon   .   However, the discovery of the   Çineköy inscription   in 2000 seems to support the theory that the term Syria derives from Assyria.


                                             The name Syria is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Chiru Orai which means small star.  Chiru means small and Orai means star.     Chiriyavan   / Periyavan are related words in Tamil    Periyavan are the   Ma orai.   Or the big   star or the great Orai which is the   Mari, the modern Tell Hariri. The sun like city architecture   of the city is a proof for that. Hence  we  can conclude  that   Mari   city  must  be  older  than  a  city  Syria  ,   the name of  which was  later used  to  denote  the broad  region.


                        Assyrian itself is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Asuran which means ‘black people'.  They were called as Ahura in ancient Iran.  Aachari -yan, Aacharyam, Aasireri and   A- Suriyan are related words in Tamil.


                                      Mari   (modern   Tell Hariri ,   Syria) was an ancient   Sumerian   and   Amorite   city, located 11 kilometers north-west of the modern town of   Abu Kamal   on the western bank of the   Euphrates   River, some 120 km southeast of   Deir ez-Zor,   Syria. It is thought to have been inhabited since the   5th millennium BC, although it flourished with a series of superimposed palaces that spanned a thousand years, from 2900 BC until 1759 BC, when it was sacked by   Hammurabi.

An artist impression of Mari shows the city's circular outer and inner walls and a waterway flowing through its center.


Palme yra


Palmyra,     an ancient city in central   Syria. In antiquity, it was an important city located in an   oasis   215 km northeast of   Damascus   and   180 km southwest of the   Euphrates   at   Deir ez-Zor. It had long been a vital caravan stop for travelers crossing the   Syrian Desert   and was known as the   Bride of the Desert . The earliest documented reference to the city by its Semitic name Tadmor, Tadmur or Tudmur which means "the town that repels" in Amorite and "the indomitable town" in Aramaic   is recorded in   Babylonian   tablets found in   Mari.


                                              Though the ancient site fell into disuse after the 16th century, it is still known as   Tadmor   in Arabic {aka Tedmor   } , and there is a   newer town   of the same name next to the ruins.   The Palmyrenes constructed a series of large-scale monuments containing   funerary art   such as limestone slabs with human busts representing the deceased.



                                          Palmyrans bore Aramaic names, and worshipped a variety of deities from Mesopotamia (Marduk   and   Ruda),     Syria (Hadad,   Ba?al,   and Astarte),   Arabia (Allat) and Greece (Athena).Palmyrans were originally speakers of Aramaic but later shifted to the   Greek language. At the time of the Islamic conquests Palmyra was inhabited by several Arab tribes, primarily the Qada'ah and Kalb.


                                   The exact etymology of the name "Palmyra" is unknown, although some scholars believe it was related to the palm trees in the area. Others, however, believe it may have come from an incorrect translation of the name "Tadmor" (Colledge, Seyrig, Starcky, and others). The city was first mentioned in the archives of   Mari   in the second millennium BC. It was a trading city in the extensive trade network that linked Mesopotamia and northern Syria. Tadmor is mentioned in the   Hebrew Bible     as a desert city built (or fortified) by the King   Solomon   of   Judea.



There had been a temple at Palmyra for 2000 years before the Romans ever saw it. Its form, a large stone-walled chamber with columns outside, is much closer to the sort of thing attributed to Solomon than to anything Roman. It is mentioned in the Bible as part of Solomon's Kingdom.


                                Palmyra  is  the  corrupted form of the original  Tamil word  Palam[ old]  Orai  which means  ‘ the  old  or the ancient  Orai'  and  so  Palm yra  must be older than  Mari  and  Syria.  It could be Panam Orai also.  Panam   maram is the name for the palm tree in Tamil.  Pa  +  na    =  the  tree  growing  from the  Ba[ earth]  towards the ‘ an ‘-  andem.



Baal , also rendered   Ba?al  ,    Northwest Semitic   title and honorific meaning "master" or "lord"      that is used for various gods who were patrons of cities in the   Levant   and   Asia Minor, cognate to   Acadian   Belu . A   Baalist   or Baalite   means a worshipper of Baal.


                                       "Ba?al" can refer to any god and even to human officials. In some texts it is used for   Hadad, a god of the rain, thunder, fertility and agriculture, and the   lord of Heaven. Since only priests were allowed to utter his divine name, Hadad, Ba?al was commonly used. Nevertheless, few if any   Biblical   uses of "Ba?al" refer to Hadad, the lord over the assembly of gods on the holy mount of Heaven, but rather refer to any number of local spirit-deities worshipped as   cult images, each called   ba?al   and regarded in the   Hebrew Bible   in that context as a "false god".


                                   The Baal cult provided the greatest and most enduring threat to the exclusive worship of Yahweh among ancient Israelites.


Ba?al  is a   Semitic   word signifying "The Lord, master, owner (male), keeper, and husband".   Akkadian   Bel ; . In   Hebrew, the word ba'al means "husband" or "owner", and is related to a verb meaning to take possession of, for a man, to consummate a marriage. The word "ba'al" is also used in many Hebrew   phrases, denoting both concrete ownership as well as possession of different qualities in one's personality. The feminine form is   Bahaullah ,  Arabic      b?alah    signifying "lady, mistress, owner (female), and wife".


                          In   Hebrew   the basic term for a homeowner is "ba'al ha-bayith", with the connotation of a middle-class, bourgeois townsperson in traditional   Jewish   texts and in the   Yiddish   language (pronounced "baalabus" in sYiddish, pl. "baalei-batim"). A feminine version of the term in   Hebrew, "ba'alat ha-bayith", means "the woman of the house", and traditionally had the connotation of a strong, even dominant, woman, who maintains the household in an effective and result-oriented manner, the Yiddish version of the term being "baalabusta".


In modern   Levantine Arabic, the word  bá?al  serves as an adjective describing farming that relies only on rainwater as a source of irrigation. Probably it is the last remnant of the sense of Baal the god in the minds of the people of the region. In the   Amharic language, the Semitic word for "owner" or "husband, spouse" survives with the spelling   BAL .          



                          Ba'al is the short   form of the Tamil word Balagan [Palagan] or Balan [Palan] which means ‘male child ‘.  The Dravidian ‘an ‘is missing in the Babylonian Ba'al. Palayee   is the name of the women in Dravidian lands.  Ba'alan  =  Ba+ la +an  which means the light of the underworld and the universe , namely  the  sun god  Lord  Murugan ,  who was   also  called as  Bala  Murugan.  The   abode for Lord Bala Murugan is the hill mount.  Bala Murugan is the god of love and fertility   in Tamil Nadu.   Palani is the other form of Bala-[ni] .   Baal   was also   the name    for various gods and goddess!  For  example,   Merodach  Baladan  ;  Bala  Nagamman-  Snake  goddess ;  Bala  Seshan--Snake God; Bala chandran -  Moon  god ;  Bala  Krishnan-cowboy - god  of love;  Bala  Murali ;  Bala  Raman;  Bala  Saraswathi;  Bala Mani .  Balan is a common name in Tamil Nadu.   Jaya  Balan , Bala  Subramaniyan,    Bala  Gurunathan ;   Bala  Raman; Bala  Venkata Raman ; Bala  Thandayuthapani;  Siva  Balan ; Dana balan ; Dharma Balan ‘Karma Balan;   Palavendran  ;  Palaniappan  ; Bala Muniyamma   are   few   examples.  Ba is the earth or the underworld and la   is the light, sun   or moon.'  Baal'  or ‘paal ‘ in  Tamil  also   means    sex [  Aaan  Pal  /Pen  Paal [  Masculine  gender  and  feminine  gender]  or  sexuality [  Pal  iyal ] or   milk  or  semen . B[p]ala Samuthiram is a name of   a lake in Tamil Nadu.

                                 Paul  , the name  had  its  origin from  Balan!  The Roman family name Paulus derives from the Latin adjective meaning "scarce", "small" or "humble    which is cognate to the modern English word "few".     Paulus  --  the ‘an  ‘ssof Balan  had   become' us'.


                     It is interesting  to  see that  the  false  God  Baal's  [ Hebrew Bible]    name  is  given to  Christ  Jesus  in  Tamil Nadu as  ‘Yaesu  Balan' [Jesus, the child].

 Balkan   sea ; The   etymology  of the  name of the  Balkan   sea  is from the Tamil word, Ba  la  ka  n  , lord   Murugan   , the son god , the Egyptian  Horus.



The   Golan Heights ,    Ramat ha-Golan) , also called the   Golan   or the   Syrian Golan ,   is   a region in the   Levant. The exact region defined as the Golan Heights changes among disciplines:


                                 Arabic names are   Jawlan    a nd   Djolan.    In the bible   Golan   is mentioned as a city of refuge located in   Bashan: 19th century authors interpreted the word "Golan" (Hebrew] meaning "something   surrounded , hence a   district ”. The Greek name for the region is   Gaulanitis   (Greek] in the Mishna   the name is   Gablan   similar to   Aramaic language   names for the region:   Gawlana ,   Guwlana   and   Gublana .

                                 Arab cartographers of the   Byzantine   period referred to the area as   jabal   (mountain), though the region is a plateau. The   Muslims took over in 7th century CE.The 1906   Jewish Encyclopedia   refers to the region as   Gaulonitis .The name   Golan Heights   was not used before the 19th century. The   UN   refers to the region as   The Occupied Syrian Golan .


           The Golan is the corrupted form of the   Tamil word Kalan which means the abode of Kalan lord Siva, the mountain Dweller.   Kalan = Ka+ la+an.  Jebal  is the Tamil word  Sa+ Ba+ la  which   means   tall  mountains  of the earth ,  reaching the    sun  and  the moon  or the place where  the Balan -the sun god  disappears[  sa-sayum place] --evening sun -  place of  sunset .  Sa  in Tamil  means  evening  sun.  In Tamil Sabalam also means desire!



                                 Damascus  nicknamed as the   City of   Jasmine ,   is the capital and the second largest city of   Syria   after   Aleppo. It borders   Quneitra,   Daraa   and   As-Suwayda   to the south,   Jordan   to the east,   Homs   to the north, and   Lebanon   to the west.


                     The name of Damascus first appeared in the geographical list of   Thutmose III   as T-m-s-q in the 15th century BC.   The   etymology   of the ancient name "T-m-s-q" is uncertain, but it is suspected to be pre-Semitic. It is attested as   Dimašqa  in   Akkadian,   T-ms-?w   in   Egyptian,   Dammasq     in   Old Aramaic   and   Dammeseq     in   Biblical Hebrew. The Akkadian spelling is found in the   Amarna letters, from the 14th century BC. Later   Aramaic   spellings of the   name often include an intrusive   resh   (letter   r ), perhaps influenced by the root   dr , meaning "dwelling". Thus,the   Qumranic   Darmeseq   and   Darmsûq   in   Syriac  The   English and   Latin   name of the city is "Damascus" which was imported from   Greek   , which originated in   Aramaic:  a well-watered place".   In   Arabic, the city is called   Dimashqu sh-Sham ? a although this is often shortened to either   Dimashq   or   ash-Sham   by the citizens of Damascus, of Syria and other Arab neighbors.   Ash-Sham   is an Arabic term for "Levant" and for "Syria"; the                     

latter, and particularly historical   Greater Syria, is called   Biladu sh-Sham,     "land of the Levant" .


                               Damascus [English] or the Akkadian T-ms-kw is the corrupted form of the Tamil word   Thee + ma+ sa+ kon .  ‘ Thee'  is  the  Primordial  fire;  Ma  is  big;  Sa   means evening   sun;  Ko  or  kon  in Tamil  means King  or  the god.    Hence Damascus could mean the ‘Sun city'; the city ruled by the sungod!  Thee masam is called as   ‘Thai masam ‘- month of' Thai in Tamil calendar. Here it   denotes   the   rise of Sun after winter solstice and it is the first month Tamil year.


   Damascus [ T-ms-kw ]is closely related to the Tamil word   Thamasa  guna, i.e. Thamasa character, the character of  lord  Siva.   Thamasam   in Malayalam  means ‘  delay' . Thomas   is   a  related name.   Thee + masa = Twin -  i. e.  Thomas.



    Aleppo, located   in northwestern Syria 310 kilometers   from   Damascus, is the largest city in   Syria     and serves as the capital of   Aleppo Governorate, the most populous   Syrian governorate. With an official population of 2,132,100 (2004 census), it is also one of the largest cities in the   Levant.   For centuries, Aleppo was   Greater Syria's largest city and the   Ottoman Empire's third, after   Istanbul   and   Cairo.


                                           Aleppo is one of   the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world; it has been inhabited since perhaps as early as the 6th millennium BC.


                          Aleppo is the common modern-day English name for the city. It was known in antiquity as Khalpe ,   Khalibon ,   and to the   Greeks   and   Romans   as   Beroea .  During the   Crusades, and again during the   French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon , the name   Alep   was used:   "Aleppo" is an Italianized version of this.


                                The ancient name of the city,   Halab , is also its Arabic name in the modern day. It is of obscure origin. Some have proposed that   Halab means   'iron' or 'copper' in   Amorite   languages since it was a major source of these metals in antiquity.   Halaba   in Aramaic means white, referring to the color of soil and marble abundant in the area. Another proposed etymology is that the name Halab means "gave out milk," coming from the ancient tradition that   Abraham   gave milk to travelers as they moved throughout the region.   The color of   his cows was ashen; therefore the city is also called   Halab ash-

Shahba   ("he milked the ash-colored").



                                  From the 11th century it was common Rabbinic usage to apply the term "Aram   Zobah" to the area of Aleppo, and this is perpetuated by Syrian Jews to this day.


                                     The name  Khalibon is the corrupted form of the Tamil name Kali  Appan,  lord  Siva  , the sun god .Halaba  is the combination of  Ka+ la + ba  which means  the la ,  white  light  coming  down  to the  Ba  or the  earth  from the sky, the ka.  ‘Ash' colored milk is nothing but the milky way of the sky.  Aram Zobah is the corrupted form of the Tamil word Aravam-- Aravan    Sabai [The assembly / city governed by the snake god].



                                 Eritrea   is a country in the   Horn of Africa.   Eritrea   is the   Italian   form of the   Greek   name Erythraía ?  meaning "red [land]". With its capital at   Asmara, it is bordered by   Sudan   in the west,   Ethiopia   in the south, and   Djibouti   in the southeast. The northeastern and eastern parts of Eritrea have an extensive coastline along the   Red Sea, directly across from   Saudi Arabia   and   Yemen.  



                                          The   Red Sea   is a   seawater   inlet   of the   Indian Ocean, lying between   Africa   and   Asia. The connection to the ocean is in the south through the   Bab el Mandeb   strait and the   Gulf of Aden. In the north, there is the   Sinai Peninsula, the   Gulf of Aqaba, and the   Gulf of Suez   (leading to the   Suez Canal.



                                   Red Sea   is a direct translation of the   Greek   Erythra Thalassa     and   Latin   Mare Rubrum   (alternatively   Sinus Arabicus , literally "Arabian Gulf"),   Somali   Badda Cas   and   Tigrinya     Qeyyi? ba?ri .    The name of the sea may signify the seasonal blooms of the red-coloured   Trichodesmium erythraeum   near the water's surface.     A theory favored by some modern scholars       is that the name   red   is referring to the direction south, just as the   Black Sea's name may refer to North. The basis of this theory is that some Asiatic languages used color words to refer to the   cardinal directions.   Herodotus   on one occasion used Red Sea and Southern Sea interchangeably.


                                       Some ancient geographers called the Red Sea the Arabian Gulf        or Gulf of Arabia.   The association of the Red Sea with the   Biblical   account of the Israelite   Crossing the Red Sea   is ancient, and was made explicit in the Septuagint   translation of the   Book of Exodus   from   Hebrew   to   Koine   Greek   in   approximately t he third century B.C. In that version, the Hebrew  Yam  Suph     is translated as   Erythra Thalassa   (Red Sea). The Red Sea is one of four seas named in English after common   color terms   — the others being the   Black Sea, the   White Sea   and the   Yellow Sea.


                        Eritrea is an ancient name, associated in the past with its   Greek   form   Erythraia ,, and its derived   Latin   form   Erythræa . This name relates to that of the   Red Sea, and then called the   Erythræan Sea , from the Greek for "red", erythros .

                                    The    name Eritrea is the corrupted   form of the Tamil word Eri tharai.  Eri means red and Tharai means the land. Red  sea  or the Erithraen sea  is the corrupted form of the Tamil word  ‘ Eri  thirai ‘   where   thirai  means    sea  or the equivalent  , the  sky.   The land adjacent to the red sea i.e Eri thirai was called as Eri Tharai. The Greek word erythros   has its origin from the Tamil word eri thazal [red hot fire].



                                   Iran  ;


                                        The name of Iran is the   Modern Persian   derivative from the   Proto-Iranian   term   Aryana, , meaning "Land of the   Aryans", first attested in   Zoroastrianism's    Avesta     tradition.   The term   Eran   is found to refer to Iran in a 3rd century   Sassanid   inscription, and the   Parthian   inscription that accompanies it uses the Parthian term "aryan" in reference to   Iranians .       However historically Iran has been referred to as Persia or similar ( La Perse, Persien, Perzië, etc. ) by the Western world, mainly due to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran   Persis ) , meaning land of the   Persians. In 1935   Reza Shah   requested that the international community should refer to the country as Iran. Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, and in 1959 both names were to be used interchangeably.   Since the   Iranian Revolution   in 1979 the official name of the country has been the "Islamic Republic of Iran".



                            The topography of Iran consists of rugged, mountainous rims surrounding high interior basins. The main mountain chain is the Zagros Mountains, a series of parallel ridges interspersed with plains that bisect the country from northwest to southeast. Many peaks in the Zagros exceed 3,000 meters (9,843 ft) above sea level, and in the south-central region of the country there are at least five peaks that are over 4,000 meters (13,123 ft).



                           As the Zagros continue into southeastern Iran, the average elevation of the peaks declines dramatically to under 1,500 meters (4,921 ft). Rimming the Caspian Sea littoral is another chain of mountains, the narrow but high   Alborz   Mountains. Volcanic   Mount Damavand, 5,610 meters (18,406 ft), located in the center of the Alborz, is not only the country's highest peak but also the highest mountain on the Eurasian landmass west of the   Hindu Kush.


                                The center of Iran consists of several closed basins that collectively are referred to as the Central Plateau. The average elevation of this plateau is about 900 meters (2,953 ft), but several of the mountains that tower over the plateau exceed 3,000 meters (9,843 ft. Iran has only two expanses of lowlands: the   Khuzestan Plain   in the southwest and the Caspian Sea coastal plain in the north.



                                 Damavand volcano, lying 70km to the NE of Tehran, the capital of the Islamic Republic of Iran.   Standing at 5,610 meters or 18,406 feet, Damavand is the tallest volcano in the Middle East, and thus as the tallest volcano in Asia, it is one of the volcanic seven summits.   It   is also the second highest volcano in the Northern Hemisphere, second only to Russia's Kyluchevskoy volcano, According to ancient pre-Christian text of the mystic seer Zoroaster; Damavand contains the sleeping fire-breathing dragon  Azi Dhaka.  [  Athee-  thee -kan ]          




                  The   name Iran   had originated from the   Tamil word   Aravan and the Aran is the   short form of Aravan.  Aravan is   a   snake god   and it also signifies lord   Siva   who is called as Ari. The words     Ari, Aran, Aravan   and Iran all originated from the Tamil root word Oraiyan the sun     .

                                  The   rugged  mountainous  ridges   and peaks    bisecting   the country northwest to south east    makes   an  Aran or  a   natural barrier    to cross the country from  east  to west  from  east Asia  to  Arabia    .  The   lengthy   mountainous barrier is   called as   Aran in Tamil   and   it   also resembles the [lengthy] snakes.   Hence  The name   Iran  should be  interpreted  as  the  country  with  natural   mountainous   lengthy , high   boundary  or  barrier  or  Aran.   The snake   or Aaravu or  Aran has  special   meaning    in relation to  Iran.  For the  fire  worshippers   of  Iran   the  snake   was  the   fire  spitting / fire breathing   Dragon, Azi  Dahaka ,  the sun god .    The   name of the mountain    Zagros is nothing but the combination of sa+ ga+ ra+an    which means   sakaran or Sekaran [evening sun ].  The sun set could be witnessed easily    on   looking   at the  Zagros mountain.    The name  Parsi  is the combination of  Pa+  ra+  Sa  which means  the   evening sun . Pa is the earth or underworld; Ra  is the sun ‘Sa  is  the ‘  sayum-- resting   ‘ or the   setting [ sun]. Azi  Dhaka  is the corrupted form of the Tamil word   Athee   thee   kan  which means ‘ the   eyes [crater] of the  primordial  fire .‘Dragon [fire spitting snake] is the corrupted form of the Tamil word ‘Thee + Ra +Ka+  va+an . Thirakavam   in Tamil  means [ fire   inducing ]acid .

Zagros  is  mimicking the Tamil word  ‘Sigaram  ‘which means  the peak.

  The Parsi Mithran is nothing but the Dravidian's   Matharan.

Mithra   is the   Zoroastrian   divinity   of   covenant   and   oath. In addition to being the divinity of contracts, Mithra is also a judicial figure, an all-seeing protector of   Truth, and the guardian of cattle, the harvest and of   The Waters.

The term   Mithra   is from the   Avestan language. In Middle Iranian languages (Middle Persian,   Parthian   etc.),   Mithra   became   Mehr ,   Myhr etc from which   Modern Persian   M ehr ,   Pashto    Lmar ,   Waziri  Myer  and   Armenian  Mihr / Mher   ultimately derive.



                         Together with the   Vedic   common noun   mitra , the Avestan common noun   mi?ra   derives from   proto-Indo-Iranian   *mitra , from the root   mi- "to bind", with the "tool suffix"   -tra-   "causing to." Thus, etymologically   mitra / mi?ra   means "that which causes binding", preserved in the Avestan word for "covenant, contract, oath".


                       M ithra is described in the   Zoroastrian   Avesta   scriptures as, "Mithra of wide pastures, of the thousand ears, and of the myriad eyes”, the lofty, and the everlasting...the province ruler”,     "the   Yazad   (divinity) of the spoken name"   and "the holy".


                                                     The   Khorda Avesta   (Book of Common Prayer) also refer to Mithra in the Litany to the Sun,   "Whose word is true, who is of the assembly, Who has a thousand ears, the well-shaped one, Who has ten thousand eyes, the exalted one, Who has wide knowledge, the helpful one, Who sleeps not, the ever wakeful”.   Some  theories have claimed Mithra represents the sun itself, but the Khorda Avesta referred  to the sun as a separate entity as well as the moon with which the sun had "the best of friendships,"(Khwarshed  Niyayesh )  




                                    Like most other divinities, Mithra was not mentioned by ssname in the   Gathas, the oldest texts of Zoroastrianism and generally attributed to Zoroaster   himself. Mithra also did not appear by name in the   Yasna Haptanghaiti , a seven-verse section of the   Yasna   liturgy that is linguistically as old as the Gathas. The lack of Mithra's presence in these texts was once a cause of some consternation amongst Iranists. An often repeated speculation of the first half of the 20th century was that the lack of any mention (i.e., Zoroaster's silence) of Mithra in these texts implied that Zoroaster had rejected Mithra. This   ex silentio   speculation is no longer followed. Building on that speculation was another series of speculations that postulated that the reason why Zoroaster did not mention Mithra was because the latter was the supreme god of a bloodthirsty group of   daeva -worshipers that Zoroaster condemned. However, "no satisfactory evidence has yet been adduced to show that, before Zoroaster, the concept of a supreme god existed among the Iranians or that among them Mithra – or any other divinity – ever enjoyed a separate cult of his or her own outside either their ancient or their Zoroastrian pantheons."

                                          Mithra   is   the short form of the Tamil name   Ma tharan.   Ma+ a +  thee  + ra +an=  Ma  tharan  which  means  the   Great  Ra  which came from the   Aathi or  the  Aathee  , the primordial fire of the Andam , the universe.     Hence the name Matharan   signifies the sun itself   which had originated from the Athee.  In true sense Matharan denoted both the fire and the sun    and hence ‘Matharan ‘   was called as' Aathi Bagavan'.   The  Ma tharan  was the  god of  the  Dravidians  who  knew  the   true  knowledge  of the  term / name  Matharan  which  the  Zoroastrians  did not have .    Zoroaster, a social reformer   of that time   who condemned the blood sacrifice - ritual practice of   Dravidians   kept silence about the Matharan, the sun god, the god of Devas, the Dravidians.  .  Thee yal aanavan is the god Ma tharan, one who came out of the thee, the fire or made  of fire.         



    The worshippers of the Matharan  -- ‘Thee  yal  aanavan ‘ [ made of fire] were called as ‘ thee  yavan'  and the word  ‘theeyavan ‘ was later corrupted  to   become   theeyan->>>-thevan>>>---  Devan.   Hence the Devas were nothing but the Dravidians. Presently   Thee ya van in Tamil mean ‘Bad boy', the meaning   given   by the Brahmins.  The  name  Ahura  is the corrupted form of the Tamil word  Asuran    which  means  the e  Dark god  ,  Karupu  Samy  namely  the   sun god [ without  him  ,  there will be  only  darkness ;  who made the Dravidians  to have  dark  complexion  ]  who  was  also the Vellai  Samy.  Suran means white person and Asuran means dark person.  We can assume that the Asuran of Iran of that time obstained from blood sacrifices.

David is the corrupted form of the Tamil name ‘Thee yathu' which means   He  , ‘the fire god'

                     The proper names  Barani  tharan  , Dheeran , Parani , Tharani  and  Dharini  are all related  to the  name Ma  tharan  or  Mithran  or  Mithreyan.

                     The  ignorant  Vedic  Brahamins  having little  knowledge about  all  these , called  themselves  as  the worshippers of  white  god  Suran[ Sura  padman] , the sun  and  named  themselves  as  Devas, as they  proclaimed  that  they  only  had the right  to perform  ‘yagam ‘  , the sacred fire ritual  ! The  blood  sacrifice  ritual  in Yaga  Salai  and the  possession of  Pra mantha  went in to the hands of  the cunning  Brahmins  from  the  Dravidians and they were then  called as  Asuran[ as they were dark in complexion] and as  time passed  the name Devan  symbolized  superiority  over the people   called  as  Asura .  The word  Devi  is  ‘thee  aye ‘or ‘ theeya  aavi' [  evolved  from the  fire  /  primordial fire]  .  Hence all goddesses were called as Devi   by Dravidians.  Deivam is a related word.


         It seems that the nomadic Brahmins would have got some crude knowledge about fire worship in Iran before they entered India.


                               The   word   Gatha   is a pure Dravidian Tamil word   , Kathai.    Kathai  =  Ka + thai   where  Ka  represents the  blue  sky  or the sun  and  the  Thai  signifies the' thee' , the fire.  Ka+ thee= kathee, had corrupted to become kathai.  Kathai or kathas  mean[s] stories.  Hence in Tamil, for the Dravidians ,stories were all about sun and the fire. ‘  Kathal  solvathae /katpathae  kathai'--Kathu   in Tamil means  ear  and  whatever  heard  through  the ears are only  stories  and  they  may  not be   not  true! 


    Look  at the Tamil  words  Kan [eye] ,  Mooku   [nose] ,   Nakku   [ tongue] Mukam [face]   ,Thalai [head] , Kai/karam [ hand] and  Kaal[legs]  all made up of  the Ka , Ma,  An,  Thee, La.


                                                    Tehran, s ometimes spelled   Teheran , is the   capital of    Iran   and   Tehran Province. With a population of 12,223,598        it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, the largest city in   Western Asia   and the   5th-largest city globally.


                                               In the 20th and 21st centuries, Tehran has been the subject to mass migration of people from all around Iran.   The city is home to many historic   mosques,   churches,   synagogues   and   Zoroastrian   fire temples. Contemporary Tehran is a modern city featuring many structures, of which the   Azadi (Freedom) Tower   and the   Milad Tower   have come to be symbols of Tehran itself. Tehran is 29th by the population of its   metropolitan area. Throughout   Iran's history, the capital has been moved many times, and Tehran is   the 32nd national capital of Iran.   Persian   is the city's native tongue, spoken by roughly 98% of the population.   The majority of people in Tehran identify themselves as   Persians   .   In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, Tehran was called Ray (which in the   Avesta   occurs in the form   of   Ragha.

                              The name Tehran is the corrupted form of the Tamil name   Thee karan whiv h means   fire flames. Thee karan   denotes   the worship of fire in ancient Tehran   by   Zoroastrians. The ‘Thee karan ‘is nothing   but   the     Tr krn,   the Egyptian name   for Obelisk.
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