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Crete Places in Tamil

  Crete  Places  in Tamil

                        Linguists recognize that a number of ostensibly "Greek" names - such as Odysseus, Achilles,  Theseus, Athene, Hera, Aphrodite, Hermes, Knossos, Mycenae, for example - are in fact non-Indo-European and belong to a pre-Greek language (or languages) that was spoken in Greece and perhaps throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, including Minoan Crete.

  Now  we  will  see  the etymology of the names of various  places of Crete.

                              1:  Crete;       The island is first referred to as   Kaptara[ note the tharai of Tamil]   in texts from the  Syrian  city of  Mari  dating from the 18th century BC   ,   repeated later in  Neo-Assyrian  records and the  Bible [Caphtor] ). It was also known in ancient  Egyptian as  Keftiu ,[note the tiu--Theevu of Tamil]- strongly suggesting  some form similar to both was the  Minoan  name for the island.

                                                            The  Mycenaean Greek, name  for Crete is unknown; it is not mentioned in extant  Linear B  texts. The name Crete (???t?) first appears in  Homer's Odyssey.  Its etymology is unknown. One speculative proposal derives it from a hypothetical Luvian   word   *kursatta   (cf.   kursawar   "island",   kursattar   "cutting, sliver").   In  Latin , it became   Creta .[].

Etymology of the name Crete.

                     The core of the mountain range is comprised of primarily   of two main groups of rocks: Plattenkalk lime stone and Tripali.  The most important and the one that occupies the largest volume, is Plattenkalk limestone. These are the rocks that form the ridge [back bone]on which all the other groups of rocks are found.  www.


                                                           There are many names   of places in   Greek   Islands that are very similar to Tamil names.   The Minoan civilization    prior   to the Hellenic settlement    was that of   people   related to Dravidian people and their    language   Tamil. From the above read  geology of  Crete  we can assume  that  the  etymology   of Crete  island   could  be      Kaarai    Theevu    ie  Island  of lime stone . Kaarai  is  lime stone in  Tamil  and  Theevu  is   island.            . .

                            2.  Kardamena is a village located 30 kilometers from Kos town ssand 5 kilometers from "Hippocrates" International Airport. There are many interesting archaeological treasures to be seen, such as the Temple of Apollo, the early Christian Basilicas and the Ancient Theatre. Kardamena also offers beautiful sandy beaches with a variety of water sports and daily boat services to Nisyros, the neighboring volcano island.   There is one Kardamiana  near zaros in central Crete.

                               Karda mena is sonically similar to the Tamil word   Karutha meena.  Karutha means “dark” in Tamil and “Meena” is a proper name for girls. Meena  is  from the root word  Meen , namely fish .Meenachi was  the  wife of  Lord Siva and she was  the goddess for  Pandian Dynasty of  Madurai, Hence   it is  assumed that   the fishermen  or  Parathvans   to whom Goddess Meenachi  was their  guardian    would have inhabitated  the place Kardamena.   Meena, fish  is the  shining star of the water. This word meena has originated from the word  Ammani --Ammeena[Aa meena]! Ammani means shining stone of the sand .Amman means shining star of the sky.

                         3.    Moni Toplou   is a 15 th   century monastery located in a dry and barren area in the prefecture  of  Lasithi , on the eastern part of the island of Crete in Greece. It  is  about  6 kilometers  north of  the village of  Paleo Kastro and  85 kilometers of  Agios Nikolos.The moneastery  was originally  called Panagia Akrotriani [virgin Mary of the cape], aftere a nearby Sideri  Cape.  It's    current  name literally  means  with the cannon ball  , thus  called by  the Turks  for the cannon  and  cannon balls[Turkish: Top]  it  had in it's  passion  for  defence rposes.

                          Moni Toplou is the corrupted name of the Tamil word Mani Thopul or Thopul Mani. Well the etymology of the word thopul and its relation with Tholos [tholos is the corrupted word of Thopul] has been delineated in another article [Greek tholos in Tamil].   The word Mani is etymologically related to the word, Om, Ammani, Ammon   and Amun.  Mani means shining stone if it is related to earth goddess like Ammani.  The same  Mani  is called as  shining  star of the sky  when  it means   the god ammon in Tamil [for details , refer the article -  The names of the Nubian  kings and queen]  Here  the moni or mani refers to the   top of the   small hills or big mountains[mani mudi] , mountain cliffs   [which was the  Dravidian sun god  Murugan's  abode].  Lord  Siva/ Murugan is called  as  Mani Kandan   in Tamil Nadu.There is  Tamil word  , mani  mudi   --which means , the crown. Hence moni is the crown or top of the mountain where there was proto Dravidian temples   existed once upon a time.   If  these  temple  shrines  were located near by the sea shore over the nearby hill tops , these  hilltops[ shrines  lit up  with lamp]  would be called as  Mani Villakku   or  Kalam  karai  villakkam--.i.e Light hopuse.  But then in these sacred places, later Christian Monasteries were built up.  It is   unfortunate to name the moni as   the corrupted word, from the word Monastery.  There are many mountainous tops   in Crete that are called as moni. They are Moni artiou, Moni Kapsa [east Crete], Moni Peri Veli.Moni Arseniou.Moni Koudouna, Moni Epsanossifi Moni Savathianon [?  Sigappu Annan/Amman]   , Moni Vassakou and   Moni odigitrias [central Crete]. I am y not convinced about the prevailing explanation given   for the etymology of  Moni Toplou--[cannon [top]  monastery].   

Figure  of Moni Toplou.

                                        Thopul [Toplou] Mani--figures



                 4.        Kala Nera  meaning  "good waters") is a village in the municipal unit of   Milies ,Magnesia ,Greece.   It is situated in the western part of the mountainous    Pelion    peninsula, on the Pagasetic Gulf  coast .

                         A well positioned seaside village which enjoys a great location on the sea front   overlooking Pagasitic Gulf. It is set amongst olive trees ascending the hills and pear trees reaching down the sea.

                    Kala Nera   is an   ideal resort   for   family holidays. Apart from the swimming in the clean and safe water of the sea there is the possibility for fishing, sailing, surfing and water-skiing. The drinking water in the village is good for the digestion, that's why there are so many fountains in the village which also took its name from the nice water of the area.

                              Kala means good in Greek. Kala nera   is good water.  However the word kala is sonically similar to the Tamil word kalam which means vessel or ship.  It  seems  that  the   kala  nera  was a  place   in ancient  times  where all the kalam[ships]   made a  stopover  there to fill up their  water tanks with drinking water  for their onward journey  to  Asia minor,  Phoenicia  ,Egypt and South India.          

                         5. .     Sweet water beach   is a naturist beach in the south of Crete in between the villages Chora Sfakion and Loutro.   Sweetwater Beach, named for the fresh water bubbling up from springs just beneath the stony surface, is a favorite for campers and naturists. Known as   Gliko Nero   in Greek, literally Sweet Water, there is a small cave with a shrine, a favorite area for tired hikers .

                             Glyka nera (sweet water) it named in that way, because under that beach there is always drinkable water

                          N ero   of the Glyco Nero is absolutely a Tamil word Neer.   Neer means   water in Tamil particularly drinking water.   Nero of  Greek word  could  not be  a  trade  word  as  water  was not at  all a  trade item[ unlike rice and ginger] in ancient days.  Hence   Proto Dravidians/ Tamils   should have inhabitated the sweet water beach once in the prehistoric times.

                6.     Bali   is inRethymno    Prefecture on the island of   Crete in Greece  in   . It has several beaches of varying size and countless hotels and apartment complexes.   Balí is not named after the Indonesian island. An educated local told me that it is from the word "Vali" that means "Prince" This contradicts the Lonely Planet's guide book that says it is from the old Turkish word for "Honey" (Honey was produced there during the Turkish rule).

                           Well!  The  name Bali should  be   actually  pronounced as  Pali.  Pali in Tamil means  ritual sacrifice[.Pazhi  means  revenge].  There is  one saying  in Tamil “  palikku  pazhi:  rathhathirku  rath' um”[blood for blood]. Hence  Bali must be an  ancient   site where sacrifice [perhaps human sacrifice] for  gods and goddesses  should have  taken place.  Also  the word  Bali  represents  the   proto Dravidian  word  Ka  bali [Lord Siva] or Kabalm-- which  signifies  the skull or head  [in sacrifice] .   Kabalam  of  Indian language[Sanskrit/Protodravidian]. The English word  Bowl  is  also  from the  word  Kabole!


          Amanikabale   was  the name of a   King of Kush-   period--middle of the  1 st   century CE.


                                        Bali, Indonesia :  Balinese culture was strongly influenced by Indian, Chinese, and particularly Hindu    culture, beginning around the 1st century AD. The name   Bali dwipa   ("Bali island") has been discovered from various inscriptions, including the Blanjong pillar inscription written by    Sri Kesari  Warmadewa  in 914 AD and mentioning "Walidwipa".


                            Visitors to Bali who have had the opportunity to witness a cremation ceremonywill be aware that it is a truly extraordinary pageant. The huge crowd ofspectators, the elaborately decorated bamboo pyramid   (bade), the long procession,the chanting priests   (pedanda),  the music of the   gamelan,  the funeral pyre,all this and more, make for an extremely colorful spectacle. Today's ceremony,however, traditional though it is in most respects, is no longer identical

to that staged in precolonial times. The most important difference is that,

in the contemporary ceremony, the custom of sacrificing one or more women,

a custom the Balinese called   mesatia  (loyalty), 1 has been replaced by the

more humane practice of burning a number of straw puppets .[ref--Human sacrificesin Bali:Sources ,notes  and commentary  by  Alfons Van Der Kraan.]


                          Malayalam    :   ,   also known as   Bali   or   Maveli   was a benevolent Asura king    , and the grandson of  Prahlada    in Indian mythology. The festival of   Onam , celebrated by Malayali Hindus in the southern Indian state of Kerala, and the Government of Kerala declared Onam as the ‘State Festival' of Kerala in 1960, commemorates his yearly homecoming after being sent down to the underworld Sutala by   Vamana   , sthe fifth  avathar  of vishnu   .

                          Onam is observed by all Malayalees as the return of the pious Mahabali to Kerala   Colorful aquatic festivals (e.g., boat races) are held on this occasion on the banks of the river Pampa   The celebration occurs all over Kerala and in the Malayalee diaspora   {}.                        


              Look at  the similarity  of  calling   Indonesian  Bali  as  “Wali”  dwipa ,   the root  word  Vali[prince]  for the  Cretan   name   Bali  and the  Dravidian King's  name  Ma veli . Vali  means  “ to have a long life”  or “long  live”  in Tamil.  That  means   a  person   was  sacrificed   so that  the  other community  members  would have a long   prosperous  life   and  at the  same time, the  sacrificed person would  live   eternally  in the hearts of  the community members.  It  seems  a   great  prince [Greek  vali][Indian Maaveli]  was  once  sacrificedi  I.e  a  Maha pali [great  sacrifice].  The place  where  Maha Pali  took place was later called as  Maha  bali. The,  good  Dravidian  king   Maveli    was killed -[  actually-sacrificed]  -- in order to  save the life of his citizens  by the cunning   Vishnu  Avathar,  a dwarf-  by name  Vamanan, representative  of  the Brahamins  Who were   intolerant  to the good rule of   a Dravidian  king Ma veli.     


                                           7..     Matala    is a village located 75 km south-west of  Herakilion ,Crete    . Matala is part of the community of Pitsidia within the municipal unit of  Tympaki.   

The caves of   Matala.

                      Artificial caves   in the cliff of the Matala bay were created in the    Neolithic age  . Matala  was the port of   Phaistos   during the Minoan    period  In the year 220 BC. Matala was occupied by the Gortynians and during the Roman period Matala became the port of   Gortys   . In the 1st and 2nd centuries the caves were used as tombs. One of the caves is called "Brutospeliana" because according to the legend it was frequented by the  Roman    general    Brutus . 


                When    Zeus  seduced the princess Europa    in the form of a white bull, he crossed the sea and brought her to the beach of Matala. There he changed into an    eagle  and flew her to Gortys where he had sex with her.


                 Matala is  nothing  but the Tamil word  Ma  thluai  which means  mega  or  big  holes.  It  seems  the Matala or  Ma  thulai  was  the  hand  works of  Proto Dravidians.


              7.    Paleochora   is situated on a small peninsula in the south west of Crete, 77 kilometers from Chania.    The town is set along 11 km of coastline bordering the Libyan Sea. It is the seat of the municipality of Kant anos- selino   and its population was 2213 in the 2001 census .    Palaiochora is built on the ruins of the ancient city of   Kalamydi .                           

                            The   etymology of   the name    Paleochora   is nothing but the Tamil  name   Palaiya  karai   that means  Old  seashore.  

                                  8.    Mount  Ida , known variously as  Idha Ídhi Idi Ita  and now   Psiloritis  [ "high mountain"], is the  highest mountain   on Crete Located in the Rethymno Perfecture, it is sacred to the  GreekTitaness  Rhea, and on its slopes lies the   cave ,   Idaion  Andron , in which, according to legend,  Zeus was born. Zeus   was brought up by   Kourites[demons]    and the nymph[goat] Amaltheia.   The   Ideon Cave , or cave of Ida, is also known as the  Spiliara tis Voskopoulas  (Cave of the   Shepherdess).   Amongs t   the Mount Ida mountain range are   numerous caves,   gorges and   plateau. Striking rock formations and hard hiking   can be found in Zaros Gorge, Kamares Gorge and Vorizia Gorge.   Minoan Crete used to be a wooded place, so was   Mt Ida.Today small parts of these woods still exist close to    Kouroutes , Kamares , Vorizia and Zaros    villages on the south flanks of Ida.

                 Mythology tells us that Zeus  was born or raised  in  the cave , by the Goddess  Rhea  , to hide him from his father Chronos who had eaten all his  children.  The tales  tell  that  special  warriors  known as  Kouretes  with shields  and metal  weapons  protested   Zeus , making a  clashing  noise  so that his father would not hear him cry. Perhaps they were the original Cretans. Zeus, of course, went on to become one of the most powerful gods; he was the God of Olympus, ruler of all Gods, God of Thunder and God of the Sky.

                                Dikti   or   Dicte  (also   Lassithiotika  Ori ,is a mountain range on the east of the  Island of Crete  island of   in the prefecture of  Lassithi .   The topology of the mountain range is rich with many plateaus (Lasithi,   Kathro , Omalos Viannou   , Limnakaro ), valleys and secondary peaks .     It is a place with a long   history. Diktaion Andron, is located here, a cave where -according to the Mythology- Zeus was born. In a different myth, Dias (Zeus) was born in Idaion Andron  in Mt Idi. A third myth is a compromise of the two, claiming that Zeus was born in  Diktaion Andron[     the two  nymphs   who cared for the infant were    Adrasteia   and    Ide]    but raised in Idaion.

                           Mount   Ida  and  Dikti   together can be called as   Idi dikti   or  Idikki.  Idukki is  a name of a district   in Kerala , India.   The name of the district is derived  from the        word     Idukki ,  meaning narrow  gorge .  The Idukki Dam ,is  a (554 ft tall  arch dam . The dam stands between the two mountains Kuravanmalai  (839)mand  Kurathimalai  ,  (925)m.  It seems  that  the  name of  the  mountains   of Crete,  Ida  and Dikiti  would have been  named  collectively  as  Idukki  only [not  as  Ida  and Dikiti] by the people [ ?protodravidians]  who lived there in prehistoric times .   The name of the cave Idaion Andron   where Zeus was born   is phonetically similar to the Tamil word Idaiyan Andron.  Idaiyan mean  a  shepherd  and  Andron  means  the elder  or  ancestor.   Hence it  seems   that  the    ancestors  of  Minoans, a  Shepherd by the name   Idaiyan   , would have lived  in that cave  in the prehistoric times.  The name of  the Greek Zeus  perse, is   nothing  but the  Tamil's , sun  God's   name  Seyon , Lord Murugan , son of  Lord  Siva. The  kourites , brought  up Zeus .The   name   of the  demons/warriors  kourites     is   phonetically  similar to    Kuravans or kurathi   [hill dwellers]  [of  Kuravan malai  of  Idukki mountains of Kerala].   The    Greek Kouros    might represent these   Kourites.    If  so  what  was the relationship  between  the   Idukki mountain  people  of Kerala and  the  Ida and Dikiti mountain  people  of  Crete in the ancient past? One of  the  nymphs “ Ide “ who  reared  Zeus   in the cave  ,was  the “ Aathi”   of  Tamils. Aathi means  ancestor or   primordial  goddess  “ Aathi Amman”.

                                  It was believed that a great thunder   hit on that cave   where  Zeus [god of thunder] was reared.    Thunder is called as  Idi  in Tamil.  Kiti means to have    or to receive.      Idi   kiti means    Strucked   by   the Thunder.  Hence   Idi and  Dikiti also   indicate a  Tamil word  Idi  kitti[Thunder  strike].   Alternatively the  word  “Ida”    could   also  mean  ‘a place ‘or ‘ In between'  in Tamil . 

The cave  of  Kamares  must  be the   place for worship of  the Dravidian goddess  Karu maari Amman.

Ida  Mountain

Idukki Dam of Kerala.



             Herakilon  or  Irakilion  is the  4 th   largest city   of Greece  and the administrative capital of the island of  Crete .During  the Ottomon period it was called as  Kandiye  and    during  the Byzantine time it was called as  Magalo Castro. It's  ancient name was  revived  in the 19 th   century   and  comes from the nearby  Roman port, Heracleum [Heracles  city].

                              The  name  Heraclion  must have  its  origin  from the Tamil word   Aravu  Kalion   . Aravu  means   snake  and  Kali means   enchanting  dance  in Tamil.  Aravu kali  is  nothing  but the”  Rassa   leelai “   where  two  snakes   embrace together   in ecstasy .  Aravu  Kalion  means   the person  who plays  with   snakes   ie  Heracles    or  a person  who   plays  a divine  dance like that of  snakes  with  his lover   or  a person who  plays a  “snake dance”.  Raakali  means    dance during  the night  time.  Raa [Raathiri]  means  the  ‘iravu ‘ in Tamil  which means  night.   Raakali  signifies   the  sexual union  of  snakes and  symbolically  of   people.   It  seems the  the  two snakes  held by the goddess  Aridane  had  gone in to the hands of   Male  demigod  Heracles. The etymology of the  name of  the Greek  goddess  Hera  is   from the Tamil word  aravu . s


10 . Rethyamno   or Rethymnon  is the capital of  Rethymno reginal unit of on the island of Crete.It  was built in antiquity  , but  was never  a  competitive  Minoan  centre.


                         The  name  Rethymno is  phonetically  mimicking the Tamil  name , Rathi Amman  ,  Goddess of love.    The root  word for  Rathi   [ of Manmathan[[God of love]    is   from  Raa thee  .” Raa “ means  night   and   “ thee”  menas  fire   in Tamil  Hence  Rathi means  fire  in the night  , namely  the Moon  or the Moon  Goddess.

11.  Aridane , the Snake Goddess:

                            Snake Goddess  indicates  figurines     of a woman holding a snake in each hand found during excavation of Minoan  archaeological  sites in  Crete  dating from approximately 1600 BCE. These idols were found only in house sanctuaries, where the snake appears as "the snake of the household", and they are probably related with the  Paleolithic  tradition regarding women and   domesticity . E vans tentatively linked the snake goddess with the Egyptian   snake goddess  Wadiet .      Statuettes similar to the "snake goddess" identified as   priest   of Wadjud and   magician   were found in Egypt. Barry Powell suggested that   the snake goddess   reduced in legend into a folklore heroine was Adriane   ( utterly pure   or   the very holy one )     who in classical Greece was often depicted surrounded by Satyrs and Maenads. Some scholars connect the snake goddess with the  Phoenician Astarte  ( virgin daughter ). She was the goddess of fertility and sexuality and her worship was connected with orgiastic cult. Her temples were decorated with serpentine motifs. She probably became later the goddess    Aphrodite    (Venus). In a relative Greek myth  Europa  (“wide-eyes or face"), was a Phoenician princess who Zeus  abducted  and carried to Crete.   Astarte is sometimes identified with Europa in ancient sources. The snake goddess's    Minoan  name seems to be   A-sa-sa-ra , a name found in Linear A   texts.


                        Adriane   (Latin :  Ariadna ; "most holy”), in  Greek mythology , was the daughter of Minos     king of   Crete   and his queen Pasiphae ,  daughter of Helios, the Sun-titan.   She is mostly associated with mazes and labyrinths, due to her involvement in the myths of the  Minotaur  and Theseus. Her father put her in charge of the labyrinth where sacrifices were made as part of reparations (either to Poseidon or to Athena, depending on the version of the myth); however, she would later help  Theseus  in overcoming the Minotaur and saving the would-be sacrificial victims. In other stories, she became the bride of the god Dionysus ,  with the question of her background as being either a mortal or a goddess varying in those accounts.


                              The snake   goddess Aridane has a knot with a projecting looped cord between her breasts. Evans noticed that these are analogous to the   sacral knot , a name given by him to a knot with a loop of fabric above and sometimes fringed ends hanging down below. Numerous such symbols in ivory, faience, painted in frescoes or engraved in seals sometimes combined with the symbol of the double-edged axe or Labrys     were found in    Minoan  and Mycenaean   sites. It is believed that the sacral knot was the symbol of   holiness   on human figures or cult-objects   In Minoan Crete the cult was aniconic and the goddesses appeared only in epiphany, called forth chiefly by means of ecstatic sacral dance, as well as by tree shaking and baetylic rites.

                       Sometimes Ariadne was associated with the surname "Very Holy Maid," because her name is a variant of Ariagne from the Greek word   àgni , which means "the most holy.


                           The   name  of the  snake Goddess  Aridane   is  phonetically  similar to the  snake   Goddess   of  Tamil Nadu  by name ,Aravani  [Aravan---male form].  A sa sa  ra    mimicks  the  Tamil word [  Aathi]  “sara  sara “  which is   onomatopoeic    in origin.[  The snake  crossed   the way  quickly   as  sara sara[adjective] ].  The name  Europa[wide eyes of the snake]    is  very  similar  Phonitically  to the  name  of the Indus  Valley  city  Harappa   .  Both  the names  , Europa and  Harappa must    have  originated  from   the  word  Aravu appan,  lord  Siva  or lord of snakes , Aravaan.

                                 Manasa Devi,[Nagini]   the snake goddess, is worshipped by Hindus, mainly for the prevention and cure of snakebites and infectious diseases like smallpox and chicken pox as well as for prosperity and fertility. She stands for both 'destruction' and 'regeneration', almost akin to a snake shedding its skin and being reborn.The idol of the goddess is depicted as a graceful lady with her body, adorned with snakes and sitting on a lotus or standing on a snake, under a hooded canopy of seven cobras. She is often seen as 'the one-eyed goddess', and sometimes portrayed with her son Astika on her lap.


                        Iravan   also known as   Iravat  and  Iravant , is a minor character from    of Mahabaratham . The son of  Pandava [ Pandiyan ]  prince Arjuna    (one of the main heroes of the Mahabharata) and the  Naga  princess    Ulupi , Iravan is the central god of the cult of   Kuttantavar     —which is   also the name commonly given to him in that cult—and plays a major role in the cult of   Draupadai . Both these cults are of south Indian     origin, from a region of the country where he is worshipped as a  village deity  and is known as   Aravan  . He is also a patron god of well-known    transgender c ommunities called   Ali   (also   Aravani   in South India, and   Hijira,  [  throughout South Asia].

                            Iravat  or the Athi  Iravat    would have  corrupted  to    become    the  Phonecian   snake goddess  Astarte.  Aathi means  primordial in Tamil.   


                                The cult of Ariadne consisted of a ceremonial dance, the orgiastic rites and some lamentations. In the   Iliad , Homer mentioned the Ariadne's dancing place ( choros ) prepared by the craftsman Daedalus in the knossian Palace. According to the Delian myth the famous Cretan Crane Dance was performed for the first time on the island of Delos by rescued youth, who were travelling with Theseus from Crete to Athens. So, this dance and image of Ariadne played always an important role in the cult on Delos. Also some vase painters depicted Ariadne in a context with dancing. There is a supposition that this ceremonial dance was a part of the collective marriage ritual for marrying  couples.



                         The orgiastic  dance during  the  festivals for Aridane ,  lamenting  by  some  people[?  Eunuchs] and young men crying  with” delivery pain” and the  Goddess  temple  priestess   being  eunichs  , all  in resemblance  to the  Aravani festivals in  Koovagam town  Villupuram district  of  Tamilnadu  state  of India . The  cry   of  the Aravani   [eunechs ]  in  Koovagam   is  about lamenting  upon the death  of their husband  Aravan or  Koothandavar.  The lamenting  and  sorrow    expressed  by  Aridane  worshippers  ,their pseudo  delivery pain cry   and  the lamenting  by   Koothandavar   worshippers   should be  all  about  being  born  as  eunuchs   and  their  wish  to  become   fertile  women   which  they  want from their   Goddess  Aridane  or  Koothandavar   god   Aravan[Male  form].


Orgiastic  cult  of  Greek  gods];  The meaning of  Orgy  is  wild  gathering of people indulging in excessive drinking,  unrestrained  dancing  ,singing  and   uninhibited  sexual activity.  The root  word for Orgia   is  from the Indo European word ‘ werg'  meaning  ‘to do' .[ ].


                          It seems that  the word  Orgia  would have originated from the Tamil word'  Verriyattu ‘. of  Lord Murugan of Dravidians.


                                    The sacred  knots     and   the sacral knots   is  a  fertility symbol  of  a virgin.  The  three knots  are ; one for  tying   the  hairs  ,  one for the blouse  and the other for  the    skirt[sacral knots]..  These  three knots   have  to be  untied  only  by her lover or the husband  during  sexual union.  In Dravidians  marriage ceremonies  the Bridegroom has to  tie  three knots  in the Sacred thread called  Thaali  on the day of marriage around  the neck of the bride.  During  the night,  the bridegroom who had  tied three  knots in the morning  has  the right to  un tie  these  knots.  Tying  the   sacred knots   ,   tied in  a  turmeric  applied thread  to the snake goddess   is  a   sacred  ritual  still followed in Tamil Nadu.  Actually  the   sacral knot    and the thread  signify the snake  which again  represent  the umbilical cord.


                         The  labyrinth  is nothing  but the  ant hill or the  snake mound[puthhu  koil]  and the Labyrinth dance  is   only  the snake  dance   ,  a  dance  which is   played  in Tamilnadu  by  young  girls  even now.

. A cobra hood is sheltering Aravan's   head.


                                     Snake worship is  still a live tradition in  Kerala, India .In almost every house , in the corner of the compound , is set apart for a snake shrine called ‘Sarpakavu'.The propitiation of the serpent god is  considered  essential to the well being of the family. The important serpent worship centre in Trichur District is situated at Vadama near, the south end of the district.  It  is known as Pambu mekkaadu  under the care of   a Nambuthiri  family.  The household is full of cobras which find their abode in every corner of the house. Owing to the magical influences of the family, the serpents will not injure them.

                   It  seems  that  in the  Dravidian land of   Kerala  .there is  a practice of  keeping  house  snakes  even now  similar to the practice of  ancient   Minoan  people s

Ant hill in cross section

snake goddess of India

snake Goddess



Snake goddess of Tamil Nadu.



Sacred Knots.


Sacral Knot.

Snake Temple of Kerala

                                   Pachia Ammos is a sandy beach with sunbeds, which is protected from the winds by the dock of the small fishing port  .Pachia Ammos is a long beach with tamarisk trees, pebbles and big waves .  Pachia ammos  is located  20kms east of  Agios Nikolos , on the road connecting Agios Nikolos   with Sitia  and Lerapetra, .built on the north side of the narrowest part of Crete , at the exit of a fertile plain with olive  groves.


                                  The name  Pachia  Ammos  is  the corrupted  form    of Tamil name   of  a  Goddess,  Pachai Amman. The male  form is called  Pachai  Appan.  Pachai Ammal  and  Pachai Appan  are the common names for boys and girls in TamilNadu.There are many  temples for Pachai Amman and Appan in TamilNadu.  Pachai means  green  in Tamil and so  Pachai  amman  could mean  Green  stone  literally .  The   other   meaning of   Pachai  is  youth  or tender[for example;pachai  udambu[body]].  Pachai  Amman is also   called  as  Virgin[Kanni] Amman in Tamil Navu by some people.  But   then  why did  the pre  Cretan people  call  the seashore as Pachia  Ammos?. Pachai  means  green  vegetations of  mountains  in case of  Pachai Appan, the God.  Pachai  means    green vegetations of  water[as in Pachai thanni[water] in case of the goddess  Pachai  Amman. Paasam [ green algae] and Paasi [Paasi mani[stone]]  are related words of Pachai.  Seeing the green  vegetations   after a long  voyage in the sea  is a definite  sign that  seashore is  in the near vicinity.  Sight of  Green vegetations ,  olive trees or  green algae  is  a  sign of hope of  returning to land for the sea farers.  Hence  green vegetation on the seashore would have been  worshipped by  the pre Cretan people  as their  Goddess of hope of  safe return to their land  from the sea  . Initially  Pachai amman  was  a  goddess  and later   in the Patriarchal society  the deity for the safe return from sea was called as  Pachai Appan. Pacahi Appan  was  later called as  Paasi Appan which got corrupted to the final name Posiden  , the God of sea.   The  ancient  Greek god of sea was nothing but the Dravidian  god  Pachai Appan.


13 . Kali Limenes   is costal village 77kms southwest of Irakilion. Kali Limenes has a lovely long white colored beach with a relatively unspoilt scenery and clear water.There are few rocks  in the sea in front of the beach and a small island with some oil storage tanks.The beach is a nuduist beach. Kali Limenes  is the site of an ancient city called Lassea , which was a good harbor during Greco Roam times.


              Kali Limenes  is phonetically similar to the Tamil word Kaalai Oli Amman. Kaalai  means  Morning  , Oli means  light and  Ammani means   shining  star[sun] in Tamil .Hence  Kali  limenes  means   shining  light   of the sun in the morning   time   which got   reflected on the white sands of the beach.    The  Tamil word Oli is the root word for the  name of the  Greek  sun God Helios.

                14.      Kaliviani is a small village situated a couple of kilometers east of Kissamos on the route from Kissamos to the beach of  Balos, which is at the top of the  Gramvoussa   peninsula. In the area are small coves with small beaches. Kaliviani is surrounded by olive groves and farm fields, and vegetables are grown here. The village is a mixture of old restored houses and new houses.


               The name Kaliviani   mimicks  phonetically  the Tamil  proper name  Kalai vaani   , the goddess of  arts and science.  This is  one of the common names  for  girls in Tamil Nadu.


                             15.  Lefka Ori   ( meaning "White Mountains") or   Madares   (meaning "without coverage, bald, bare of any vegetation for high mountain areas") is a mountain range located in Western   Crete , in the Chania   prefecture. The White Mountains or  Lefka Ori occupy a good part of the centre of West Crete and are the main feature of the region. They consist  mainly of limestone, from light grey to bluish or black color. The "White Mountains" have got their name from the perpetual white or off white color of their peaks as the off white of limestone during the summer and fall interchanges with the snow that covers the peaks until late in spring.


                              The name of the  white  and high  mountain   Lef  Ka  ori    resembles  the   Ka ori   ie.  throne  name of the  Egyptian Pharoahs.  Ka   or  ko means  god  and  ori  means  king   in Tamil . Ka ori   means  God king.  The root  word    for Ori   is the  Tamil word  Orai  which means  the  shining  white star in the  sky , namely the sun  and here the  tall   mountain  shining in the sun light.

                            16.   Amoudara beach is located 5 km west of Heraklion.  Amoudora   means ‘big sand ‘in Greek and it is a 7 kilometer long sandy beach. Some of the exciting soccer matches of the 2004 Olympics were played here in the soccer stadium at Amoudara.

                   Amoudara is actually the corrupted   Tamil name,   Amman Thurai. Ammani means shining   big stone [or sand] in the sky, namely the moon.  Ammu  means , the moon  in Tamil  and it also  denotes the  amuthum  or the  milk rice[ milky white of moon] . Ammon   is the shining big stone in the sky, namely the Sun. Thurai means port or harbor in Tamil Amno[s] means big stone in   Greek.   Pre Hellenic Cretan considered   the islands of   Mediterranean sea as shining stars.

Pachia Amnos.



              Kalamaki   Beach is a sandy beach.  Under the  water  there are  slippery rock plates. 

                                    The name  Kalamaki  could be   the Tamil word  Kalam+  yaeki  where the word  Kalam  =  boat or vessel   and the word Yaeki  = to get in . Hence  Kalam Yaeki  means  the p lace [ship yard]where the Ships  get in to  the land  for repair work.



                    Ilingas beach;


Near by the Chora Sfakion  is the  Ilingas beach.   Ilingas  beach  is an  excellent pebbly beach with  some caves .


                        The name Ililngas resembles the Tamil word Lingam which means a phallus. Does it mean  that  Minoans   worshipped  not only  earth goddess  but  also sky  god  the phallus[ inside the caves].  Caves and the phallus are the forerunners of Bell.  Remember phallus worship was very much evident in Delos.


 Preveli Beach;


                                 Preveli beach is situated near the Preveli River. The famous palm-forest of Preveli is here. An oasis of lush vegetation offers unique moments of relaxation for those willing to walk a little along the river and trying to find a quiet spot. This forest used to be a favorite destination for hippies in the early 70s. People used to live here in huts made of palm leaves till late '80s.  Preveli Monastery is also here.


                                        The name  Preveli  is  in resemblance to the Tamil word Peru Veli which means  a large  garden or a large farm land or a big[Peru ]forest[veli].  Here it denotes the large palm forest.


                   The village of   Chandras   is a traditional Cretan village on the Ziros plateau in eastern Crete.Chandras is about  30kilometers away from the town of Sitia.The village is surrounded  by  fields of vines fruit trees and olive groves. In this fertile area much wine and raki are produced.

                                    The name Chandras  is  similar to the Tamil word  Chandran.  Chandra is  the female form.   Chandra  means  moon[ Goddess] in Tamil. The root word for Chandra is the word  senth  ora i[ red ,  mixed   with yellow   and    orange    --Senthuram --  the full moon] . The full moon is also called  as    Manjal [yellow ] Nilavu[moon] in Tamil.   The word xantho [chromic--yellow]   must have originated from theTamil word Chandra.


               Agathia  is a beautiful small traditional village a kilometer or so east of Palekastro in the northeast of the island of Crete. it is situated not far from the sea and it is very close to the beautiful beach--Rizovigo.In that area there are several other beaches  to be found like Palm beach of Vai.

                      The name Agathia is similar to the  Tamil word  Agathian. 1. In Tamil language the term 'Agam' means inside and 'iyar' means belong. One who belong inside (soul) is the Tamil meaning for Agathiyar.

                         2. - Alternatively - Agathil Iyyan--.  Means   one who thinks  always about the lord[Siva] in his soul or  mind.  It could be one[siddar] who has conquered the soul [agam].  we know that  the root word  for the Greek word ‘ Agape ‘ is the Tamil word aga  pai[heart]. It seems  the name  Augustus  would have originated from the Tamil name Agathiyan. . ‘Ka' has become' ga'. .Augustus' means    "great" or "venerable", derived from Latin   augere   "to increase   [.Accorded a great deal of respect, esp. because of age, wisdom, or character "a venerablestatesman].There was a  great  sage  called  Agathiyan , a  Tamil Siddar  in ancient  India  who had written the  first  Tamil grammar book  Agathium.



                      The names of the of  other Cretan places  like  Kandanos  , Kambanos.,Sivas, Malia, Moni  Savathinon, Kerato Kambos,  Kamare ,Kolimbari,Kavali and  Kamilari  are phonetically similar to the Tamil names   Kandan, Kamban, Siva, Malaya ,Sevathayian Mani[Lord Siva--Man in red], Karuthha  Komban[the dark bull] and Karumari.
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